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Значения английских модальных глаголов




При переводе предложений с модальными глаголами трудности возникают из-за многообразия их значений в различных функциях. Некоторые глаголы могут выполнять несколько функций:

1) вспомогательный глагол:

· для образования времен – will, shall, would, have, be;

· для образования форм сослагательного наклонения – should, would;

2) модальный глагол – can, could, may, might, must, need, ought to, should, shall, will, would, have to, be to, dare;

3) эмоционально-усилительная функция – should.

4.1. CAN

 

  Значение Пример
Ability  
· general ability “Now, you pray, Harold,” she said. “I can’t”, said Krebs.
· capability We can discussyour paper after lunch.
Theoretical Possibility  
· general possibility Anybody who wants to can become a prison visitor.
· possibility due to circumstances Can we use the indefinite article with this noun?
· occasional possibility The Strait of Dover can be very rough.
· disbelief She can hardly be expected to perform any serious function
· uncertainty / doubt Can he be making investigation all alone?
Improbability She can’t have been waiting for us so long.
Permission  
· asking for / granting / refusing Can I come and see your pictures? / Of course, you can. / Of course, you can’t.
Opportunity It’s the only occupation where you can be absolutely undistinguished and still flatter yourself a bit.

 

COULD

 

  Значение Пример
Ability  
· general ability The boy could read before he went to school.
· capability He could read a great deal during the holidays.
· particular ability Simon was so tired that he couldn’t open the door.
Theoretical Possibility  
· possibility / impossibility due to circumstances You couldsee the forest through the other window before the new block of houses was erected.
· general possibility Anyone couldcome and ask him for help.
· occasional possibility My grandmother could be very unpleasant at times.
· uncertainty / doubt   Could she have been waiting for us so long?
· improbability You couldn’t be hungry. You’ve just had dinner.
Opportunity You could have found a more ingenious excuse.
Permission  
· asking for Could I borrow $100?
· general permission On Sundays we could stay up late.

MAY



 

  Значение Пример
Permission  
· asking for Now may I go?
· granting You may smoke in here.
· refusing Members may not bring more than two visitors into the club.
Possibility  
· ‘chance’ possibility (=possibly) I wonder how Tom knew about Ann’s engagement? – He may have heard it from Jack.
· possibility due to circumstances Time adverbs may come at either the end of the sentence, but not in the middle.
· supposition implying uncertainty He may be busy getting ready for his trip.
· reluctance I may as well take the child with me.

MIGHT

 

  Значение Пример
Permission
· asking for Might I speak to him now?
Possibility  
· ‘chance’ possibility (= possibly) He came home alone. You shouldn’t have let him do that; he might have got lost.
· possibility due to circumstances It’s too late to phone him now. He might be sleeping.
· supposition implying uncertainty He might be doing his lessons now.
· reluctance   “I’ll go at six.” “That’s far too late; you might just as well not go at all.”

 

MUST

 

  Значение Пример
Speaker’s / external authority
· obligation I must remind you that you are giving a presentation tomorrow.
· self-imposed duty I must see if I can find you something.
· necessity You must leave her out of it.
· instructions A trailer must have two rear lamps.
· order Staff must be at their desks by 9.00.
· emphatic advice You must come and see us when you are in London.
· prohibition Staff mustn’t smoke when serving customers.
· deduction He has a house in London and another in Paris, so he must be rich.

 



NEED

 

  Значение Пример
  Necessity (speaker’s authority)  
· absence of necessity You needn’t make two copies. One will do.
· advice You needn’t worry. Everything will be OK.

 


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