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OUGHT TO. Значение Пример Obligation (neither speaker’s authority or external authority) · advisability You ought


  Значение Пример
  Obligation (neither speaker’s authority or external authority)  
· advisability You ought to read this book. It’s very good.
· desirability You ought to say a word or two about yourself.
· duty You ought to feel some respect for your elders.
· appropriateness At your age you ought to be earning your living.
· flattery You ought to be very pleased, oughtn’t you?
· assumption The plane ought to be taking off in a minute.
· deduction The new sanatorium ought to be very comfortable.
· criticism You’re paler than you ought to be.




  Значение Пример
  Obligation (neither speaker’s authority or external authority)  
· advisability You shouldn’t feel unhappy over such trifles.
· desirability He looks very ill. He should have stayed at home.
· duty You should send in accurate income tax returns.
· appropriateness You should have something better to do with your time.
· instruction You should use the definite article in this sentence.
· deduction The film should be very good as it’s starring first-class actors.
· assumption He should have finished the translation by now.
  Emotional use  
· rhetorical questions Why shouldn’t you invite him?
· object clauses beginning with Why I don’t see why we should make friends.  
· attributive clauses beginning with Why after the noun reason There’s no reason why they shouldn’t get on very well together.
· constructions and set phrases Who should come in but his first wife!
· subjunctive mood She was terrified lest they should go on talking about her.




  Значение Пример
  Prediction I shall come into his money in time.
  Volition (speaker’s authority)  
· promise You shall have my answer tomorrow.
· intention I shall marry Francis whatever happens.
· threat ‘You shall stay just where you are! ’ his mother cried angrily.
· warning You shan’t find it easy to accept.
· offer Shall I carry that for you?
· suggestion Shall we tell him?
· instruction Members shall enter the names of their guests in the book provided.
· request for advice Which one shall I buy?


4.10. WILL / WOULD


  Значение Пример
· pure future He knows he will be late. / He knew he would be late.
· present predictive He’ ll have finished his supper by now. / Who would that be?
· habitual predictive An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street. / On Sundays he would getup early and go fishing.
· willingness I’ ll have a sherry, please.  
· invitation Will you have a drink? / What would you like to drink?
· intention He wouldn’t help me yesterday. / I keep asking him for help but he won’t help me.
· insistence If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. / We all tried to stop him smoking in bed but he would do it.
  Informal use expressing a characteristic action (would) Bill objected. – He would!
  Assumption (will) That will be Ann.


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