OUGHT TO. Obligation (neither speakers authority or external authority) advisability You ought


Obligation (neither speakers authority or external authority)  
advisability You ought to read this book. Its very good.
desirability You ought to say a word or two about yourself.
duty You ought to feel some respect for your elders.
appropriateness At your age you ought to be earning your living.
flattery You ought to be very pleased, oughtnt you?
assumption The plane ought to be taking off in a minute.
deduction The new sanatorium ought to be very comfortable.
criticism Youre paler than you ought to be.




Obligation (neither speakers authority or external authority)  
advisability You shouldnt feel unhappy over such trifles.
desirability He looks very ill. He should have stayed at home.
duty You should send in accurate income tax returns.
appropriateness You should have something better to do with your time.
instruction You should use the definite article in this sentence.
deduction The film should be very good as its starring first-class actors.
assumption He should have finished the translation by now.
Emotional use  
rhetorical questions Why shouldnt you invite him?
object clauses beginning with Why I dont see why we should make friends.  
attributive clauses beginning with Why after the noun reason Theres no reason why they shouldnt get on very well together.
constructions and set phrases Who should come in but his first wife!
subjunctive mood She was terrified lest they should go on talking about her.




Prediction I shall come into his money in time.
Volition (speakers authority)  
promise You shall have my answer tomorrow.
intention I shall marry Francis whatever happens.
threat You shall stay just where you are! his mother cried angrily.
warning You shant find it easy to accept.
offer Shall I carry that for you?
suggestion Shall we tell him?
instruction Members shall enter the names of their guests in the book provided.
request for advice Which one shall I buy?


4.10. WILL / WOULD


pure future He knows he will be late. / He knew he would be late.
present predictive Hell have finished his supper by now. / Who would that be?
habitual predictive An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street. / On Sundays he would getup early and go fishing.
willingness Ill have a sherry, please.  
invitation Will you have a drink? / What would you like to drink?
intention He wouldnt help me yesterday. / I keep asking him for help but he wont help me.
insistence If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. / We all tried to stop him smoking in bed but he would do it.
Informal use expressing a characteristic action (would) Bill objected. He would!
Assumption (will) That will be Ann.


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