:






procesors unda qondes rac SeiZleba meti registrebi.




rogorc iqna aRniSnuli, procesoris arqiteqtura xels unda uwyobdes gamomTvleli sistemebis warmadobis gazrdas.garkveuli teqnologiis pirobebSi es miiRweva paralelizmis ( ori an meti operaciebis erTdroulad Catareba) gziT. aq ganixileba paralelizmi brZanebebis (konveiris principi nax 1-2) da procesorebis (matriculi ,veqtoruli ,multiprocesoruli,multikomputeruli arqiteqtura (Arroy,vector processor) nax 1-4 ) doneze.

 

g)

d)

nax 1-2

nax 1-2a) ganxilulia xuT safexuriani konveiri,aq TviTeuli kvanZi asrulebs erT misTvis gansazRvrul specifikur operacias.Cveulebriv kvanZSi erTi brZanebis Sesrulebas vTqvaT sWirdeba T mkw,xolo mTlianad xuTive safexurze brZaneba Sesruldeba 5*T droSi,anu rocesoris warmadoba iqneba 200000*T brZaneba wamSi. Tu ganvixilavT igive sqemiT muSaobis dros konveiris saxiT, maSin (nax 1-2 b) procesoris warmadoba gamodis 5 jer meti anu 5*200000*T , radgan yovel T droSi sruldeba erTi brZaneba. aseTi konveiruli sqema realizebuli iyo Intel 486 procesorSi. uaryofid momentebad SeiZleba miviCnioT Semdegi :

---konveiris mocdena ,roca konveiris zogierTi safexuri ar gamoiyeneba (maxsovrobasTan operaciebi araa aucilebeli ,registruli operaciebi ) ----- Semdegi brZanebis Sesasruleblad aucilebelia wina brZanebis Sesrulebis Sedegi (out of order execution )

--- gadasvlebis brZanebebis Sesrulebisa saWiroa konveiris gasufTaveba

Tanamedrove procesorebSi konveiri xanadaxan 30 safexurianic ki aris (es Tavis mxriv zemoT CamoTvlil naklovanebebs ufro amZafrebs )

xolo dawyebuli Intel Pentium procesorebSi realizebulia or konveiriani arqiteqtura nax 1-3.

 

 

nax 1-3

aq miRebuli iyo, rom mTavari konveiri U asrulebda yvela saxis brZanebas, xolo meore V konveiri martiv brZanebebs mTel ricxvebze an erT martiv brZanebas mcocavi mZimiT.

konveirul arqiteqturiani procesorebi amaRleben procesoris warmadobas 5-10 jer, magram metjer ver. Teoriulad SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqnes oTx konveiriani arqiteqturac, magram igi Txoulobs uzarmazar aparaturul danaxarjebs da amitomac miuRebelia.amis sanacvlod iyeneben erT konveirs bevri funqcionaluri kvanZiT ix nax 1-4. es arqiteqtura gamoiyeneboda Pentium II Si AMD Duron , AMD ATHLON. aseT arqiteqturas uwodeben Superpipelining super skalalurs (aris sxva Sexedulebac romlis mixedviTac pirveli aseTi arxiteqtura gamoiyena seimur kreim Tavis CDC 6600 Si.

nax 1-4

aqac, rogorc konveirSi, erTi brZanebis Sesruleba ar unda Txoulobdes sxva brZanebis Sedegs da brZanebebi ar unda ewinaaRmdegebobdnen erTmaneTs. aseTi winaaRmdegobis daZleva Txoulobs mniSvnelovan gamoTvliT resursebs. amis dasZlevad Seiqmna e.w. statistikuri dagegmis algoriTmi ,roca kompilatori winaswar aerTianebs erT did brZanebaSi iseT brZanebebs romelTa paraleluri Sesrulebac SesaZlebelia. nax 1.4 a)-ze warmodgenilia kompania motorolas MC88110 procesoris struqturuli sqema sadac realizebuliasuper skalaluri arqiteqtura. .



nax 1.4 a)

roca ganixileba procesorebis paraleluri muSaobis sqemebi , aq ganarCeven 4 ZiriTad saxes :

1 SISD brZanebaTa erTi nakadi, monacemTa erTi nakadi

2 SIMD brZanebaTa erTi nakadi, monacemTa bevri nakadi

3 MISD brZanebaTa bevri nakadi, monacemTa erTi nakadi

4 MIMD brZanebaTa bevri nakadi, monacemTa bevri nakadi

ukeTesi warmadobis maxasiaTeblis misaRwevad (50,100 da ufro maRali) gamoyenebuli unda iqnas matriculi (Array processor) arqiteqturis mraval procesoruli sistemebi.misi arsia rom procesorebi muSaoben erTi da igive brZanebebze , oRond sxvadasxva monacemebisTvis . aseT arqiteqturas xandaxan uwodeben SIMD (Single Instruqcion-stream Multiple Date-stream) erTi brZanebebis nakadi sxvadasxva monacemTa nakadisTvis. pirveli aseTi arqiteqturiani procesori Seqmnes ilionisis universitetSi ILLIAC IV. ix. nax 1.5 a)

 

 

 

nax 1-5 a)

 

nax 1.5 b)

nax 1-5 g)

matriculi komputeris minimaluri ujredi warmodgenilia kvandrantiT 8X8, romliTac miiRweoda wamSi 50 milioni operaciis (mcocavi mZimiT ) warmadoba.SesaZlebeli rom yofiliyo 4 aseTi kvandratiani matriculi komputeris Seqmna misi warmadoba 1 miliardi operacia iqneboda, rac msoflioSi arsebul yvela komputeris simZlavreebze metia.



matriculi komputerebis ( programistebis TvalTaxedviT) msgavsia veqtoruli procesori. is Zalian efeqturia monacemTa elementebis wyvilebze operaciebisTvis, magram misgan gansxvavebiT Sekrebis yvela operacia sruldeba erT ajamvis blokSi,romelsac konveiris arqiteqtura aqvs ( samuel kreis mier Seqmnili Cray-1 ). e.i. matriculi komputerSi imdeni amjamavi kvanZia ramdenic elementicaa masivSi, xolo veqtorulSi am datvirTvas Tavis Tavze iRebs veqtoruli registri, Semdgari pirobiTi registrebidan. am registrebSi monacemebi itvirTeba erTi brZanebiT aqve xdeba ori veqtoris elementebis wyvil wyvilad Sekreba da axali veqtoris Seqmna. matriculi komputerebi dRes ar iwarmoeba, magram misi arqiteqturis raRac elementebi gamoiyeneba PENTIUM 4 Si. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT veqtoruli procesoris sqema sinergetikuli procesoruli elementis Synergetic Processor Element SPE magaliTze nax 1-5 a). termini sinergetika es jamuri efeqtia ori an meti faqtorebisa da is metia vidre am faqtorebis efeqturobis ubralo ariTmetikuli jamisa calcalke. es procesoruli elementi ( 8 cali) gamoiyeneba CellProcessor Si (Cell - ujredi ) nax 1-5 b)., romlis ideologebi arian Toshiba,Sony,IBM (STI abreviatura ),xolo konkretulad SCEI (Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.). Teoriulad cnobilia am elementis maqsimaluri gamoTvliTi simZlavre - 250 GFLOPS.

nax 1-5 a)

 

aq SIMD ( single instruction, multiple data ) erT brZanebiani procesoria.muSaobs principiT erTjeradi brZanebaTa nakrebi mravalnakadiani monacemebi.

nax 1-5 b)

procesori Cell Seicavs 64 Tanrigian birTvs POWER da 8 sinergetikul procesorul elements SPE . isini erTmaneTs uerTdebian Cqarosnuli saltiT EIB, aqvea CaSenebuli 2 arxiani maxsovrobis kontroleri ( mas SeuZlia imuSaos swraf 256 mbaitian Rambus XDR tipis maxsovrobasTan). sxva komponentebTan kavSirisTvis gamoiyeneba salte FLexIO (Redwood) maqsimaluri taqturi sixSiriT 6.4 ggh. am saltiT SesaZlebelia sxva Cell procesorebis SeerTebac. aqvs ori donis qeS maxsovroba 64 da 512 kbaiti da energomoxmarebis CaSenebuli maრTva. procesoruli elementi muSaobs 128 bitian ( 4 32 Tanrigiani sityvebi ) operandebze (analogia SSE intelSi da 3Dnow AMD -Si ). bevri SekiTxva SeiZleba gaCndes Tu ratom 8 procesoruli ujredi.mkacri mecnieruli dasabuTeba amisi ar arsebobs ,Tumca bevri amocanisTvis Sifracia, gadakodireba, arqivizacia, samganzomilebaniani animacia da sxva es saukeTesoa. aqve bevri svams kiTxvas ratom intel da AMD am gziT ar wavidnen.

am arqiteqturis Sedarebisas Cveulebrivi PC arqiteqturasTan dgindeba :

-- arqiteqturidan gamomdinare misi warmadoba ukeTesia :

--programul uzrunvelyofaSi is CamorCeba PC

-- Linux gamoyenebiT ( IBM mcdeloba ) Cell ma es CamorCena SeiZleba daZlios:

-- Tu Cell warmoeba seriuli gaxda maSin ekonomiurad konkurent unarianic gaxdeba PC

-- ukve dRes bevri cnobili firma SAMSUNG ,Infineon,AMD uSveben Cell

-- tardeba samuSaoebi Cell aRsaWurvad PCI Express

 

 

komputerebis arqiteqturaSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravT multi procesorebs. is Sedgeba ramodenime pararelurad SeerTebuli procesorebisagan nax 1-6 a), romlebsac saerTo maxsovroba aqvT.radgan am SemTxvevaSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba maxsovrobis kvanZTan procesorebis sinqronul muSaobas aseT reJims ewodeba Zlier dakavSirebuli (tightly coupled ).

procesorebs Soris maxsovrobis kvanZTan urTierTobaSi konfliqtebis Tavidan asacileblad SesaZlebelia Semdegi arqiteqturis gamoyeneba nax 1-6 b .

nax 1-6 a

 

procesorebis maxsovrobasTan dasakavSireblad gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva meTodebi nax 1-6 ბ).

nax 1-6 ბ)

 

pirveli es aris komutirebadi cxauri (crossbar switch) ,sadac TviTeuli procesori ukavSirdeba maxsovrobis TviTeul moduls kvanZis komutatoriT (crosspoint switch) ,romlis marTvac SesaZlebelia aparaturuladac. naklia kvanZuri komutatorebis didi raodenoba n2.

am saxis alternativaa e.w. omega qseli (omega network) aq gacilebiT naklebi kvanZuri komutatori gamoiyeneba vidre wina qselSi, magram procesi kargavs swrafmoqmedebas radgan TviTeuli moTxovna gadis ramodenime kvanZs.

Aris mcdelobebi mesame saxis arqiteqturis Seqmnisa e.w. maxsovrobasTan unificirebuli SeRweviT (Non Uniform Memory Access, NUMA). aq TviTeuli procesori asocirdeba maxsovrobis raRac sivrced.aq swrafmoqmedeba matulobs, magram rTuldeba programebis da monacemebis ganTavseba.

aq multiprocesoruli sistemebis saerTo maxsovrobis Seqmnisas ganixileba sami gza .

pirveli .iqmneba saerTo virtualuri maxsovroba komputeris arqitequrul doneebze. operaciuli sistema qmnis cxrils sadac asaxulia maxsovrobis ganawileba Tu process Wirdeba meti maxsovroba operaciuli sistema cxrilSi eZebs da poulobs Tavisufals da am Tavisufali maxsovrobis misamarTebs gadascems process(procesors).ZiriTadi datvirTvas iRebs operaciuli sistema romelic Tvalyurs adevnebs Tu romeli procesi romel cxriliT sargeblobs nax 1-6 e) . aq SesaZlebelia aparaturuli mxardaWerac.

meore. aparaturuli da operaciuli sistemis mxardaWeriT iqmneba modelirebuli saerTo maxsovroba Sesabamisi saerTo virtualuri misamarTirebiT dayofili gverdebaT. vRebulobT gavrcobad saerTo maxsovrobas (Distributed Shared Memory, DSM), sadac TviToeuli gverdi gaTavsebulia erT erT maxsovrobis modulSi ix nax 1-6 b). Tu muSaobis procesSi procesors daWirda monacemebi, romlebic mas ar gaaCnoa, xdeba sistemuri wyveta,operaciuli sistema poulobs am gverds da Sesabamis procesors Txovs misi gverdidan gaugzavnos es monacemebi Sida sakomunikacio qseliT momTxovn procesors. efeqti iseTia, rom viTom procesorebi monacemebs iReben erTi saerTo maxsovrobidan.

mesame. aq saerTo maxsovroba iqmneba momxmareblis reluri dros sistemiT. am abstragirebul saerTo maxsovrobas qmnis progaramirebis ena,romelic kompilatoris saSualebiT am maxsovrobis realizacias axdens. magaliTad realuri drois sistema Lindaan monacemTa saerTo obieqtqbis modeli Orca.

nax 1-6 e)

imis gamo , rom multiprocesorul sistemebSi Tu procesorTa raodenoba metia 256 ,imdenad rTulia da xandaxan SeuZlebelic, konfliqtebis Tavidan acileba maxsovrobasTan paralelur muSaobaSi, rom amjobineben gamoiyenon e.w. multikomputeruli arqiteqtura.am arqiteqturaSi procesorebi sust kavSirSi arian erTmaneTTan da Sedegebs ugzavnian erTmaneTs saerTo saltiT ( analogia eleqtronuli fosta ) nax 1-6 g) .imis gamo , rom araa SesaZlebeli yvela multikomputeris erTmaneTan SeerTeba qmnian or ganzomilebian an sam ganzomilebian cxrilur konstruqciebs an xismagvar an rgolurs. am SemTxvevisTvis gamoiyeneba specialuri Sualeduri komputerebi. aRniSnul arqiteqturiTaa Seqmnili klasterebi.

nax 1-6 b

nax 1-6 g)

ganvixiloT gomogenuri multikomputeruli sistemebi, romlebic cnobilia sistemur qselebad (System Area Networks, SAN), sadac kvanZebi iqmneba erT konstruqtivSi da romelic uerTdeba erTian maRal siCqarian qsels. aq ganasxvaveben sistemebs saltis arqiteqturiT an sistemebs komutaciiT. saltis arqiteqturis dros Cveulebrivad gamoiyenebaFastEthernet ,gadacemis siCqariT 100mbiti/wm .

komutirebad multikomputerul sistemebSi xdeba gadasacemi informaciis marSrutizacia. aq SesaZlebelia Seiqmnws mravali topologia, romelTagan upiratesoba eniWeba kvadratul cxaurs da hiper kubs nax 1-6 v).

nax 1-6 v)

kvadratuli cxauris arqitqturis Seqmna SedarebiT advilia da aRTqmqdia. hiper kubis arqiteqtura rTulia. aq TviTeuli kuTxe warmoadgens computers , xolo waxnagebi maT Soris kavSirebs.SesaZlebelia otx ganzomilebiani (nax 1-6 v) ) da meti xuTi,eqvsi ganzomilebiani arqiteqtura.

komutirebad multikomputerul sistemebSi arCeven procesorebs masiuri paralelizmiT Massively Parallel Processors, ) da muSa sadgurebis klasterebs (Clusters Of Workstations, COW).

gomogenuri multikomputeruli sistemebis garda cnobilia gotoregenuri multikomputeruli sistemebi. aq SesaZlebelia ramodenime klasterebis gaerTianeba swrafmoqmedi ATM saltiT. cnobilia aseTi qseli Myrinet, 64128 procesoriani.

cxadia, rom multiprocesoruli sistemebis Seqmna rTulia , magram iolad dasaprogramebelia. maSin , roca multikomputeruli sistemebis Seqmna advilia , magram Znelad dasaprogramebelia. gamosavalia Seiqmnas e.w. gibriduli sistemebi, romelic dauSvebs naklebi problemurobiT axali komputerebis damatebas arqteqturaSi.

 

zogadad komputerebis klasifikacia ganxiluli procesorebis mixedviT SeiZleba warmovidginoT Semdegnairad nax 1-6 d).

aq miRebulia paralelur arxiteqturiani komputerebis Semdegi klasifikacia :

SISD brZanebaTa erTi nakadi monacemTa erTi nakadi

SIMDbrZanebaTa erTi nakadi monacemTa mravali nakadi

MISD brZanebaTa mravali nakadi monacemTa erTi nakadi

MIMDbrZanebaTa mravali nakadi monacemTa mravali nakadi

nax 1-6 d)

aq UMA (Uniform Memory Access maxsovrobasTan erTgvarovani mimarTvaa

NUMA (Nonuniform Memory Access maxsovrobasTan araerTgvarovani mimarTvaa ( NC-NUMA keSis gareSe da CC-NUMA sapirispiro)

(Cache Only Memory Access mxolod keS maxsovrobasTan mimarTvaa

(Massively Parallel Processor) procesorebi masiuri paralelizmiT (IBM SP/3)

COW - klasterebi

 

$1-2 maxsovroba

maxsovroba komputeris is kvanZia sadac inaxeba programebi da monacemebi.monacemebis Senaxvis ZiriTadi erTeulia orobiTi Tanrigi saxelwodebiT biti. igi Rebulobs or mniSvnelobas 0 an 1 . komputerebSi monacemebis orobiT saxeSi warmodgenasTan erTad gamoiyeneba agreTve orobiT aTobiTi ( IBM firmis mainfreimebi ).maxsovroba, Tu ganvixilavT mis fizikur realizacias, warmoadgens ujredebis simravles, romlebic xasiaTdeba misamarTiT da sigrZiT bitebSi.aq miRebulia sigrZis erTeulad baiti , romelic 8 bitis tolia.baitebis raodenoba gansazRvravs sityvas. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom sityvaSi baitebis danomvras udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs . SPARC, IBM is mainfreimebSi miRebulia baitebis danomvra marcxnidan marjvniv e.w. baitebis mimdevroba pirdapiri TanmimdevrobiT (big endian), xolo Intel is komputerebSi e.w. baitebis mimdevroba uku TanmimdevrobiT (little endian).aseTi gansxvavebuli midgoma arTulebs informaciis urTierT gacvlas (magaliTad qselSi ) da Txoulobs specialur gadamyvan programebs.

maxsovrobis kvanZis proeqtirebisas aqtualuria masSi informaciis dacvis uzrunvelyofa. maxsovrobaSi informaciis Secvla SesaZlebelia masze raime saxis gare (infrawiTeli,ultraiisferi,radiaciuli da sxva) dasxivebiT (zemoqmedebiT) an vTqvaT kvanZis mkvebavi Zabvis myisieri cvlilebebiT. Secdomis Tavidan asacileblad maxsovrobaSi ZiriTad informacias umateben e.w. sakontrolo informacias (rogorc ityvian SeaqvT siWarbe) ,romlis analiziTac msjeloben maxsovrobidan wakiTxuli informaciis WeSmaritebaze.aqve SesaZlebelia informaciis aRdgena specialuri algoriTmebiT (magaliTad xemingis kodiT).magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT zogadi sqema (venis diagramis saxiT ) nax 1-7 .vTqvaT maxsovrobis sam seqtorSi A , B da C Si Cawerilia sityva 1100 (seqtorebSi AB,ABC,AC ,BC ix. nax 1-7 a) .Semogvaqs sakontrolo informacia luwobaze Tavisufal seqtorebSi (ix nax1-7 b) imdagvarad rom A , B da C seqtorebSi bitebis jami iyos luwi.

 

nax 1-7

vTqvaT damaxinjda biti AC seqtorSi, 0 gardaiqmna 1-ad, maSin komputeri specialuri algoriTmiT amowmebs yvela seqtors da naxulobs, rom mxolod A da C seqtorebSi luwoba dairRva e.i. aq moxda ZiriTadi informaciis bitis cvlileba da igi swordeba. aRniSnuli algoriTmi muSaobs erT damaxinjebis aRmoCenaze. praqtikaSi am miznisTvis gamoiyeneba xemingis kodi. Tu Sesamowmebeli sityva X Tanrigiania, mas emateba V Tanrigi kontrolisTvis ise rom 2exp V meti iyos X+V ze. da iqmneba X+V Tanrigiani sityva, ise rom axal sityvaSi sakontrolo Tanrigebi ganTavsdeba oris xarisxovan bitebSi. magaliTisTvis aviRoT 8 Tanrigiani sityva 10110010.SevqmniT axal sityvas sakontrolo bitebi ganTavsdeba 1,2,4 da8 bitebSi, xolo danarCenSi sawyisi sityva. 1 sakontrolo biti luwobaze amowmebs sawyisi sityvis 1,3,5,7 bitebs, 2 sakontrolo biti 2,3,6,7 bitebs, 4 sakontrolo biti 4,5,6,7 bitebs 8 sakontrolo biti 8bits. am logikiT vRebulobT aseT sityvas 101001100010. Tu damaxinjeba moxda , vTvaT, 5 bitSi, maSin axali sityva iqneba 101001101010. Tu viangariSebT sakontrolo bitebs xelmeored vnaxavT, rom ar daemTxveva 1 da 4 sakontrolo bitebi , anu Secdoma dafiqsirda maTvis saerTo 5 an 7 TanrigebSi. magram radgan 2 sakontrolo biti ar Secvlila rac imas niSnavs,rom 7 Tanrigi ar damaxinjebula darCa mxolod 5 Tanrigi, rac simarTles Seesabameba.

ganviTarebis teqnologiuri cikli Tanabrad exeba ,rogorc procesorebs aseve maxsovrobis elementebs.Tu pirveli miiswrafis srafmoqmedebis gazrdisken meore ZiriTadad maxsovrobis moculobis gazrdisken.es tendecia iwvevs procesoris srafmoqmedebasa da maxsovrobis swrafmoqmedebas Soris disproporciulobas da Sesabamisad sistemis swrafmoqmedebis daqveiTebas. misaRebi gamosvali moZebnili iqna e.w. keS (cash) maxsovrobis saxiT ,romelic akmayofilebs moTxovnas : swrafmoqmedi maxsovroba mcire moculobiT ix. nax 1-8. sayuradReboa is garemoeba , rom keS maxsovroba ganTavsebulia procesorSi.

nax 1-8

am arqiteqturis arsia: keS maxsovrobaSi Cawerilia yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebadi sityvebi.programa Tavdapirvelad keS maxsovrobaSi eZebs sasurvel informacias , xolo SemdgomSi ZiriTad maxsovrobaSi.logikurad cxadia, rom rac ufro xSirad akiTxavs procesori keS maxsovrobas sasurveli informaciis (sityva) wamosaRebad , miT sistemis warmadoba izrdeba.keS maxsovrobis proeqtirebisas gadasawyvetia Semdegi sakiTxebi :

1- keS maxsovrobis moculobis sidide

2- keS Mmaxsovrobis striqonis sigrZe

3- rogor ganisazRvros ra inaxeba keS maxsovrobaSi

4- SevqmnaT gaerTianebuli (monacemebi + brZanebebi) unifed cashe arqiteqturis keS maxsovroba Tu gancalkevebuli split cache (am tipis arqiteqturas xSirad uwodeb harvardis HarwardArchiteqture), sadac monacemebi inaxeba erT keSSi, xolo brZanebebi meoreSi. split cache TanamedrovebaSi ufro ganviTarebadia.

keS maxsovrobis blokebis raodenobis dadgena. miRebulia,rom I donis keS maxsovroba Tavsdeba TviT procesoris mikrosqemaSi, II done mikrosqemaze. მისი მოცულობა მერყეობს 128 კბაიტიდან 12 მბაიტამდე. IIIdone procesoris mikrosqemidan mocilebiTაა განთავსებული და მისი მოცულობა 24 მბაიტზე მეტია.

თანამედროვე კლასიფიკაციით განსზღვრულია IV დონეც.ჩვეულებრივად ის განთავსებულია ცალკე მიკროსქემაში და გამოიყენება მულტიპროცესორულ, მაღალ ი წარმადობის სისტემაბში.

ქეშ მახსოვრობა აგრეთვე გააჩნია გარე მოწყობილობებსაც:გარე დამგროვებელს , CD/DVD/BD დისკებს.მაგ მყარ დისკზე დამგროვებელს იგი აქვს 1-64 მბაიტის მოცულობის

konsruqciulad maxsovrobis kvanZi standartulad ganTavsebulia erT nabeWd 72 kontaqtian firfitaze SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module ) an 168 kontaqtianze DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module).miniaturul komputerebSi gamoiyeneba SO-DIMM (Small Outline DIMM).

 

$ 1-3 damxmare maxsovroba

rac ar unda didi iyos ZiriTadi maxsovroba ( praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT ), is bevri amocanebisTvis sakmarisi ar aris.

maxsovrobis gazrdis erTaderTi gza aris gare maxsovrobis gamoyeneba ix nax 1-9.

 

nax 1-9

am pirobiT piramidas zevidan qveviT moZraobisas axasiaTebs sami Tviseba :

-izrdeba maxsovrobasTan mimarTvis dro ramodenime nano wamidan ramdenime wamamde

-izrdeba maxsovrobis sidide

-izrdeba sistemis ekonomiuroba (mcirdeba danaxarjebi maxsovrobis erTeulze )

warmodgenili damxmare maxsovrobis saxeebidan ganvixiloT magnituri diski ( vinCesteri pirvelad igi Seqmna IBM). is Sedgeba erTi an ramodenime aluminiT dafaruli diskisgan (amJamad IBM awarmoebs minisgan damzadebul diskebs ) nax 1-10.1

nax 1-10.1

diskis diametric meryeobs 3 -12 sm, portatiuli komputerebisTvis maTi diametric 3sm ze naklebia.diskze informaciis Cawera-wakiTxva xdeba e.w.bilikebze ix nax 1-10.2 bilikebis erTobliobas , romlebic erTnairi manZiliT arian dacilebuli centridan ewodebaT cilindrebi.. nax 1-10

rogorc avRniSneT ZiriTadi informaciuli matarebelia biliki. igi dayofilia seqtorebad ,romlebic Seicaven 512 baits monacemebisTvis. seqtoris dasawyisSi ganTavsebulia preambula (preamble) romlis mixedviTac xdeba wakiTxva-Caweris ciklis sinqronizacia. monacemebis Semdeg Semdeg modis ECC (Error-Corecteing Code ) sadac ZiriTadSi gamoiyeneba xemingis kodi an rid-solomonis kodi.seqtorebs Soris mdebareobs seqtorTSoriso intervali. am gamouyenebeli (momxmareblisTvis) moculobebis gamo realuri momxmareblisTvis misaRwevi moculoba 15% naklebia damamzadeblis mier deklarilebulisgan.

 

 

nax 1-10.2

 

Tanamedrove personalur komputerebSi firfitebis raodenoba meryeobs 6 -12, xolo bilikTa raodenoba 5000-10000 ia.Caweris simkvrive 50000-100000 bitia santimetrze. vinCesteris damaxasiaTebeli parametrebia maxsovrobis sidide da warmadoba rac gansazRvravs mis SesaZleblobas wamSi gadacemuli mbaitebis raodenobisa ( 20 dan 40-ze meti).imis gamo ,rom seqtorebs sxva da sxva sigrZe aqvT adre centrTan axlos myof seqtorebSi Caweris simWidrove gacilebiT maRali iyo vidre zeviT, rac garkveul siZneleebTan aris dakavSirebuli. Tanamedrove komputerebSi cilindrebi dayofilia zonebad ( 10-30) nax 1-10.3.

.rac ufro dacilebulia zona centridan miT met seqtors igi Seicavs.yvela seqtori erTnairi sididisaa.matulobs moculoba magram rTuldeba Cawera.

 

nax 1-10.3

 

aRsaniSnavia, rom magnituri diski imarTeba uSualod kontrolerebidan , romlebic faqtiurad warmoadgenen procesorebs.igi marTavs ara marto Caweris , wakiTxvis da formatirebis process, aramed akontrolebs seqtorebs mdgomareobas, dazianebul seqtors cvlis specialurad gamoyofil sarezervo seqtorze.

 


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