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Komputeris tipebi




rogorckomputerebis Seqmnis istoriulma mimoxilvam dagvanaxa, pirvel etepebze gadamwyveti sityva ekuTvnoda pirovnebebs. magram SemdgomSi ganviTareba ZiriTadSi ganisazRvreboda teqnologiuri da ekonomikuri aspeqtebiT. Intel -is erT erTma damaarsebelma korporaciis direqtorTa sabWos yofilma xelmZRvanelma Ggordon murma dainaxa kanonzomiereba komputerebis ganviTarebasa da teqnologiis ganviTarebebis Soris. es urTierT damokidebuleba cnobilia muris kanonis saxeliT. kanoni ambobs , rom 18 TveSi tranzistorebis raodenoba procesoris mikrosqemaSi ormagdeba , xolo Sesabamisad maxsovroba izrdeba 4 jer ix nax 0-2.

 

nax 0-2

Znelia prognozis gakeTeba Tu kidev ramdexans imuSavebs es kanoni, magram albaT 2020-2025 w.w.

komputerebis tipebis zogadi klasifikacia warmodgenilia cxr 1

 

komputeris tipi fasi (dolarebSi) gamoyenebis sfero
erTjeradi komputeri 0.5 misaloci baraTebi
mikrokontrolerebi saaTebi,xelsawyoebi,manqanebi
saTamaSo komputerebi saxlis saTamaSo komputerebi
personaluri komputerebi samagido da portatiuli komputerebi
serverebi gamoTvliTi qselebi
muSa sadgurebi 50000-500000 super- mini komputerebi
mainfreimebi bankebSi da sxva did organizaciebSi paketuri damuSaveba.

 

erTjeradi komputerebis gamoyenebis sferos zusti warmodgenac ki Znelia. sayovelTaod gavrcelebulia e.w. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification ) mikrosqema romelsac 128 bitiani saidentifikacio kodi aqvs. igi gamoiyeba samrewvelo saqonlis ,wamlebis,sabanko operaciebis da sxva mravali nawarmis saidentifikaciod da damTavrebuli Sinauri wvrilfexa da msxvilfexa saqonliT damTavrebuli. konstruqciuli gaformebis TvalsazrisiT isini SeiZleba iyvnen pasiuri an aqtiurni. AaRsaniSnavia,rom 2006 wels holandieli endriu tonenbaumis mier Seiqmna analogiuri saxelis virusi romelic iyenebs SQL s ORACLE bazebTan urTierTobisTvis da aqvs SesaZlebloba 127 simbolis damaxsovrebis.

 

 

Semdegi saxea mikrokontrolerebi ,romelTa gavrcelebis areali marTlac ganuzomlad didia cxr 2.

dasaxeleba gamoyenebis sfero
sayofacxovrebo teqnika maRviZarebi,sarecxi manqanebi,gasaSrobi aparatura,mikrotalRovani Rumelebi dacvis signalizaciebi
komunikatorebi peijerebi,mobilurebi,faqsebi
periferiuli mowyobilobebi printerebi,modemebi,skanerebi, CD_ROM
gasarTobi mowyobilobebi video magnitofonebi,muzikis centrebi, DVD MP3 damkvrelebi,
gamosaxulebebis xelsawyoebi televizorebi,cifruli video kamerebi,cifruli foto aparatebi,obieqtivebi,aslebis mimRebi aparatura
samedicino xelsawyoebi rentgenuli aparatura, kardiografi, tomografi cifruli Termometrebi
samxedro gamoyeneba torpedoebi,frTosani raketebi,balistikuri raketebi
savaWro mowyobilobebi savaWro aparatebi,sakaso aparatebi
saTamaSoebi radio marTvadi saTamaSoebi ,video TamaSebi, molaparake Tojinebi.

 



daniSnulebis mixedviT mikrokontrolerebi iyofa universalur da specializirebul mikrokontrolerebad.saerToa maTi realur droSi muSaoba. miuxedavad mcire gabaritebisa isini srulfasovani gamomTvleli manqanebia. programuli uzrunvelyofa ZiriTadad Cawerilia mudmiv maxsovrobaSi, xolo momxmarebelTan urTierTobisTvis gamoiyeneba martivi pultebi.

mikrokontroleris funqcionalur sirTuleze SeiZleba vimsjeloT im arasruli periferiiT, romlebic SeiZleba arsebobdnen masSi:

-sxvadasxva saxis interfeisebi: USB,Ethernet,IEEE 1394,SPI,CAN da sxva

-analogiur-cifruli da cifrul-analogiuri gardamsaxebi

-komparatorebi

-taimerebi

-CaSenebuli taqturi generatorebi

-displeebis da klaviaturis marTva da sxva mravali

maTi programireba xdeba asembleris enaze, an Ci ze an kompilatorebiT sxva enebidan,beisikis interpretatoriT an e.w releur kontaqturi sqemiT.

saTamaSo komputerebi es igive komputerebia, oRond gaumjobesebuli maRalxarisxovani grafikuli da audio parametrebiT. da SedarebiT naklebi programuli uzrunvelyofis universalurobiT. aq gamoirCeva Play Station 3 , Microsoft XBOX , Nintedo GameCube.

isini Seqmnilia mZlavr procesorebze.ase magaliTad Play Station 3 romlis ,procesoria Cell Broadband Engine taqturi sixSiriT 3.2 ggh, grafikuli procesoria RSX realobis sintezatori . video Cipis taqturi sixSirea 550 mgh da aqvs 256 mbt maxsovroba.. TviT PS3 aqvs 256 mbt XDR DDRAM operatiuli maxsovroba. qselur da ulabelo muSaobas uzrunvelyofs Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g), Gigabit Ethernet Bluetooth 2.0. aqvs 4 porti USB 2.0



aRsaniSnavia, rom aqc iyo mravali warmatebuli mcdeloba xakerebis mier am modelis dacvis gatexvisa.

personaluri komputerebi yvelaze gavrcelebuli klasia komputerebis. aq ganarCeven samagido, noutbukebs da jibis personalur komputerebs.

miuxedavad konstruqciuli saxeebisa isini , yvela , Seicavs maxsovrobas ramodenime aseuli mgb, myar disks ramodenime aseul gb-ze, CD/DVD mowyobilobas,modems,qselur interfeis,maRali xarisxis monitors da sxva periferiul mowyobilobebs.xarisxis (parametrebis) ganmsazRvrelia e.w. deda plata

serveri.es aris mZlavri gamomTvleli manqana, romlebic SeiZleba iyos erT procesoriani da multiprocesoriani. erTprocesoriani serveris arqiteqtura mcired gansxvavdeba personaluri komputerisagan.gansxvaveba mxolod teqnikur parametrebSia.operaciul sistemebad gamoiyeneba UNIX (LINUX)Lda gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi WINDOWS.

konstruqciuli TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba gamovarCioT mikroserverebi,romlebic gamoirCevian simartiviT, saimedobiT da xelmiswmvdomlobiT,

bleid serverebi Tavisi saimedobiT, udidesi warmadobiT da sakomunikacio SesaZleblobebiT,

awyobad 19 diumian konstruqciuli karadebis serverebi damuSavebis centrebisTvis,

iatakis serverebi amocanaTa farTo speqtris gadasawyvetad (SeiZleba dadges 19 diumian karadebSi),

serverebi e.w. Rrublebzeda gamoTvlebisTvis

daniSnulebis mixedviT fail serveri,print serveri, faqs serveri, dacilebuli SeRwevis serveri, safosto serveri,monacemTa bazis serveri, veb serveri, serveri gamoyenebiTi donisTvis (gamoyenebiTi programebisTvis), proqsi serveri

 

.muSa sadgurebis kompleqsi.teqnologiis ganviTarebasTan erTad mcirdeba gamoTvliTi manqanebis fasi da izrdeba teqnikuri parametrebi. yovelive aman xeli Seuwyo mZlavri muSa sadgurebis da personaluri komputerebis erT kompleqsad gaerTianebas, romelsac muSa sadgurebis klasterebad an ubralod klasterad (Clusters of Workstation ) moixseneben.es ubralo meqanikuri gaerTianeba ar aris .aq gamomTvleli manqanebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian maRal siCqariani Cqarosnuli qseliT da aRWurvili arian specialuri programuli uzrunvelyofiT. Zalian xSirad klasterebs warmoadgenen veb serverebi, riTac saSualeba xdeba SekiTxvebis gadanawileba qselSi.

meinfreimebi es aris yvelaze mZlavri gamomTvleli manqana arsebulTa Soris. misi yvela parametric Tvisobrivad ufro maRalia vidre sxvebis.ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba samecniero gaTvlebisaTvis ,internetis serverebad.

 

 

 

 

 

miRebulia meinfreimis Semdegi gansazRvra.is aris gamomTvleli sistema,romelic gaTvaliswinebulia sistemis gamoyenebis maRali koeficientiT , pirvel rigSi gansakuTrebiT didi, sxvadasxva sididis datvirTvebis Seuferxeblad SesrulebisTvis . maT SeuZliaT erTdroulad aTasobiT operaciebis Sesruleba, miliardamde tranzakciebis Sesruleba dReSi da momxmarebelTa momsaxureba globaluri maStabiT.

 

komputeris 6 doniani arqiteqtura

zogadad dReisTvis miRebulia komputeris 6 doniani arqiteqtura ix nax 0-3 , romlebic ganixileba qveviT

 

nax 0-3

miRebulia, rom manqanur enaze dawerili programebi ( 1 done ) SeiZleba interpretatorebis gareSe Sesruldes komputeris eleqtronuli sqemebით 0 doneze. es sqemebi maxsovrobasTan da Semtan-gamomtan mowyobilobebTan erTad qmnian komputeris aparaturul uzrunvelyofas, romelic Sedgeba urTierT damokidebul obieqtebebisagan : integraluri sqemebisagan, nabeWdi firfitebisagan, gamtarebebisagan, kvebis wyaroebisagan, maxsovrobis kvanZebisgan da gare mowyobilobebisgan.iseTi cnebebi, rogorebicaa algoriTmi,da brZanebebi am doneze ar ganixileba.

progaramuli uzrunvelyofa Sedgeba algoriTmebisagan da programebisagan (algoriTmebis komputeruli warmodgenis saxe ).

sawyis etapze aparaturuli da programuli uzrunvelyofis gansxvavebebi TvalsaCino iyo. droTa ganmavlobaSi es gansxvavebebis zRvrebi TandaTan iSleboda. nebismieri operacia, romelic sruldeba programulad SeiZleba Sesruldes aparaturulad. mecnier Kkaren palent lencis (Karen Panneta Lentz ) mier xatovnad iTqva, rom aparaturuli uzrunvelyofa mxolod da mxolod gaqvavebuli programuli uzrunvelyofa ariso. fasi,saimedoba ,swrafmoqmedeba,cvlilebebis moxdenis albaToba es is faqtorebia, romlebic moqmedeben damproeqtqblis arCevanze Tu ra gziT gadawyvitos amocana( aparaturuli Tu programuli). mxolod 1951 wels kembrijis universitetis mkvlevarma moris uilkisma (Maurice Wilkes ) wamoayene idea,rom SesaZlebeli iyo Seqmniliyo 3 doniani komputeri. es damatebiTi done mas warmodgenili qonda ,rogorc ucvleli interpretatori (mikroprograma). am donis Semotanam mniSvnelovnad gaamartiva aparaturuli done, radgan mikroprogramebi realizebuli iyo gacilebiT naklebi raodenobis brZanebebiT.Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,rom maSin eleqtruli sqemebi realizebuli iyo eleqtrul naTurebze komputeris parametrebis gaumjobeseba TvalsaCino iyo. 70 wlebis CaTvliT es ideologia dominirebda. miuxedavad upiratesobisa sam doniani komputerisa or donianze,programisტებისთვის jojoxeTuri Sroma iyo aseT komputerze propgramebis gawyoba.

am sirTuleebis Tavidan asacileblad ,kerZod operatorebis muSaobis reJimis gasaioleblad Seqmnili iqna e.w. programa operaciuli sistema,romelic itvirTeboda komputerSi misi muSaobis mTeli xnis ganmavlobaSi. aq operaciuli sistema TviT kiTxulobda samuSao programas ,arkvevda sistemur resursebs,Semdeg TviTon kiTxulobდa perfokartebs brZanebiT kompilatoris CasatvirTad.amis Semdeg kompilatori kiTxulobda da kompilirebas ukeTebda raTac enaze daweril programas. kompilatoris muSaobis damTavrebis Semdeg , operaciuli sistema kiTxulobda monacemebs da asrulebda programas. SemdgomSi xdeboda operaciuli sistemis garTuleba axal axali brZanebebis damatebis gziT,ramac gamoiwvia axali donis brZanebaTa nakrebis arqiteqturis donis Camoyalibeba. am donis axal brZanebebs ewodeboda operaciuli sistemis makrosebi (anda supervizoris gamoZaxebebs ). TanamedroveobaSi ixmareba sistemuri gamoZaxebebi .reJims, roca operaciuli sistema kiTxulobda perfokartebis dastas da Sedegs beWdavda printerze ewodeboda paketuri reJimi . 60 ian wlebSi masaCutestis universitetis mecnierebma Seqmnes operaciuli sistema, romelic saSualebas aZlevda ramodenime momxmarebels erTdroulad emuSava erT komputerზe.aseT sistemas ewoda droiT dayofis reJimSi momuSave sistema. zogadad mikroprogramebis donis ganviTarebam gamoiwvia bevri dadebiTi momentი.kerZod SesaZlebeli gaxda manqanuri brZanebebis raodenobis gazrda,ramc TavisTavad xeli Seuwyo komputeris parametrebis gaumjobesebas. es tendecia grZeldeboda 70 iani wlebis bolomde.bolos da bolos mikroprogramebis raodenobam miaRwia Tavis piks, ramac gamoiwvia mudmivi maxsovrobis elementTa raodenobis zrda,ramac Tavis Tavad Seamcira komputeris swrafmoqmedeba.warmoiqmna is situacia,rom mikroprogramebi amcirebdnen swrafmoqmedebas da konputerebis arqiteqtura daubrunda im etaps, roca arsebobda ori done.

Cveulebrivi progamisti ar muSaobs qveda 1,2,3 donesTan.aq saqme gvaqvs sistemur programistebTan, romlebic adgenen transliatorebs da interpretatorebs romlebic mxars uWeren zeda doneebs. miRebulia, rom 2,3 donebisTvis , Cveulebrivad, xdeba interpretireba xolo me-4 , 5 da maRali doneebisTvis xdeba translireba. gansxvavebaa imaSic, rom 1,2,3 donebze manqanuri enebi cifrulia,xolo maRla gansakuTrebulia. am doneebze saqme gvaqvs gamoyebiT amocanaTa programisTebTan .

me 4 doneze saqme gvaqvs SedarebiT dabali donis enebis simbolur formasTan. am doneze dawerili programebis aRTqma adamianis mier SesaZlebelia.am donis programebis translireba 1,2,3 doneebisTvis xdeba specialuri programiT , romelsac asembleri ewodeba.

me-5 doneze saqme gvaqvs e.w. maRali donis enebTan (c++,c#,Java,Prolog,LISP) , romlebzec muSaoben gamoyenebiTi programistebi . am doneze Seqmnili programebi e.w. kompilatorebis saSualebiT translirdeba me-3,4 doneebisTvis. zogjer me-5 doneze xdeba interpretirebac konkretuli gamoyenebiTi arealisTvis,magaliTad simboluri logikisTvis.

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