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Lesson 50. Lab. Work 55.

I. Translate the following and check up your answers:

A. 1. достаточное количество жидкости; 2. определить жизненную емкость легких; 3. быть в состоянии полного изнеможения; 4. гладко протекающее выздоровление; 5. взять мазок на посев; 6. нейтрализовать токсические вещества; 7. ощущать сухость во рту; 8. произвести срочную операцию; 9. Предыдущий приступ боли; 10. крайне опасные лихорадочные симптомы

1. a sufficient amount of fluid; 2, to determine the vital capacity of the lungs; 3. to be in the state of complete prostration; 4. a smooth convalescence; 5. to take the smear for culture; 6. to neutralize toxic substances; 7. to feel dryness in the mouth; 8. to perform an emergency operation (surgery); 9. a previous attack of pain; 10. extremely dangerous feverish symptoms

Б. 1. подкожное введение лекарства; 2. по поводу поврежденной голени; 3. нехватка кислорода; 4. при предыдущем поступлении в хирургическое от­деление; 5. распад тканей; 6. закончиться благоприятным исходом; 7. крайняя утомляемость; 8. в период выздоровления; 9. устранить боль в спине; 10. при­менить медикаментозное лечение

1. a subcutaneous injection of medicine; 2. relative to the injured leg; 3. the lack of oxygen; 4. on previous admission to the surgical department (unit); 5. the disintegration of tissues; 6. to result in a favourable outcome; 7. extreme fatigue; 8. during the period of convalescence; 9. to eliminate the backache; 10. to employ medicine treatment

II. Answer the following questions:

1.How can injections be given? 2. What specialist must one consult if one has an injured extremity? 3. For what purposes is X-ray examination employed? 4. What dis­ease results from an extreme lack of red blood cells? 5. Relative to what subject was the last lecture in Physiology delivered? 6. In case of what infectious disease is the smear taken for culture? 7. In what patients does the convalescence develop smoothly?


Cycle VI. Topic Questions


1. What does lobular pneumonia usually develop after? 2. What course is fever usu­ally characterized by? 3. What are temperature changes caused by? 4. For how many weeks may fever persist? 5. What is the usual respiratory rate in lobular pneumonia? 6. What are breathlessness and cyanosis of the face associated with? 7. What does the patient with lobular pneumonia complain of? 8. What does the physical examination of such a patient reveal? 9. What do the findings of blood and urine analyses in lobular pneumonia reveal? 10. What does the X-ray examination of the lungs in lobular pneu­monia show?


1. What is pulmonary tuberculosis caused by? 2. What does the invasion of myco-bacterium tuberculosis produce in the lungs? 3. What organs may this disease affect?

4. When and by whom was the causative agent of tuberculosis discovered? 5. What does
the patient usually complain of in the early stage of tuberculosis? 6. What kind of cough
is observed in tuberculosis? 7. What does the microscopic examination of sputum re­
veal? 8. When may the discharge of blood become profuse? 9. What is the temperature
characterized by in benign and active forms of the disease? 10. What forms of tuberculo­
sis are accompanied by cold profuse perspiration at night? 11. What is loss of body weight
caused by in case of this disease?


1. When does primary tuberculosis usually begin? 2. What organs does primary tu­berculosis affect? 3. By what tests is primary tuberculosis revealed? 4. What other exami­nation may ТВ be revealed by? 5. What symptoms are characteristic of primary ТВ? 6. Where are consolidations sometimes revealed on physical examination? 7. What rales are heard in the involved lung? 8. What does a favourable course of primary ТВ lead to? 9. What may primary ТВ lead to in unfavourable cases?


1. What are the main complaints of a patient with rheumatic endocarditis? 2. What temperature may a patient have for a prolonged period of time? 3. What may the onset of the disease be preceded by? 4. What may the pulse rate become on physical exertion?

5. What does the blood analysis reveal? 6. What changes are observed in the size of the heart? 7. What murmurs are heard in the heart? 8. The evidence of what process are the heart murmurs? 9. Where are organic changes clearly marked? 10. What regimen must the patient with rheumatic endocarditis follow?



1. What pain does the patient with angina pectoris suffer from? 2. Where does the pain usually radiate to? 3. When does pain frequently begin? 4. What is the incidence of attacks of pain associated with? 5. Where does the doctor reveal areas of very sensitive skin? 6. What does the electrocardiogram taken during the attack show? 7. During what attacks are no changes in the peripheral blood noted? 8. What changes in the blood are noted in particularly severe attacks of pain? 9. What may the main cause of angina pec-toris be? 10. What medicine may relieve pain in mild and moderate attacks of angina pectoris?


1. What is cardiosurgery? 2. What scientists have been working in this field? 3. Why are the operations on the heart performed? 4. What precedes the operation on the heart? 5. What methods of treatment of a heart disease does the surgeon choose if the therapeu­tic measures have been ineffective? 6. Why are the operations on the heart so difficult? 7. Why are the operations on the contracting heart dangerous? 8. What occurs to the brain cells if there is a long interval of blood circulation during the cardiac operation?

9. What methods are used in cardiosurgery?


1. The disease of what system is atherosclerosis? 2. What does atherosclerosis of the blood vessels result from? 3. When do these metabolic disturbances begin? 4. What must the doctor do to prevent the appearance of the disease? 5. What regimen must such a patient follow? 6. Why is sound sleep very important for such a patient? 7. In what pro­fessional groups is the incidence of atherosclerosis high? 8. Why must patients with ath­erosclerosis not smoke? 9. What must the diet of a patient with atherosclerosis contain?

10. What treatment is indicated in case of atherosclerosis?


1. What Russian scientists proved the existence of an association between a lesion of the central and peripheral nervous system and the development of ulcer? 2. Into what theory was the neurogenious theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer developed by K. Bykov?

3. What are gastric and duodenal ulcers found to result from according to this theory?

4. What does a spastic contraction of vessels in the stomach or duodenum result in? 5. In what persons is ulcer observed to develop in the majority of cases? 6. What other factor may contribute to the onset of ulcer? 7. In whom are ulcers found to develop more fre­quently? 8. What is the disease characterized by? 9. What are the main characteristics of pain in gastric ulcers? 10. What does the course of ulcer vary with? 11. When does exa­cerbation of ulcer occur?


1. What does the term chronic gastritis mean? 2. What diseases may chronic gastritis be associated with? 3. What are the most important causes of chronic gastritis? 4. What clinical manifestations is gastritis characterized by? 5. What symptoms are most fre­quent in gastritis? 6. In what forms of gastritis may nausea and vomiting of mucus be observed? 7. In what case do the symptoms of chronic gastritis become worse?


1. In what sex group is gastric carcinoma more common? 2. At what age is the high­est incidence of gastric carcinoma noted? 3. In what age group is gastric carcinoma known to have a more malignant course? 4. What duration has gastric cancer from the appear­ance of its first manifestations to death? 5. What pathologic conditions have been deter­mined to contribute to the development of gastric carcinoma? 6. What other factors are responsible for the development of stomach carcinoma? 7. What theories have been sug­gested in the aetiology of gastric carcinoma? 8. What are the main symptoms of gastric carcinoma known to be? 9. What does prolonged external profuse bleeding result in?

10. What appetite has the patient with gastric carcinoma?


1. In what sex group is the incidence of acute appendicitis more frequent? 2. What is acute appendicitis known to begin with? 3. Where does the pain become generalized then? 4. When does the pain become worse? 5. What is the pain accompanied by? 6. What temperature has the patient with acute appendicitis? 7. What does the blood analysis reveal? 8. What pulse rate has the patient with acute appendicitis? 9. What tongue has the patient? 10. What treatment is indicated in case of acute appendicitis? 11. Under what anaesthesia is the operation for acute appendicitis performed?


1. What does Botkin's disease affect? 2. What idea about the origin of this disease did

5. Botkin advance? 3. Due to whose efforts was the term "Botkin's disease" introduced into medicine? 4. Who usually falls ill with Botkin's disease? 5. What is Botkin's disease caused by? 6. What instrument (device) may this filterable virus be discovered by? 7. Where is the filterable virus present? 8. Where does the filterable virus survive for days and weeks?


1. What organ is inflamed in acute cholecystitis? 2. What main forms may cholecys­titis have? 3. What does the patient with cholecystitis complain of? 4. What is an attack of pain usually preceded by? 5. Where may pain radiate to in case of acute cholecystitis?

6. When does pain grow much worse? 7. What characteristic clinical manifestations has this disease? 8. What does the physical examination of the patient with acute cholecysti­tis reveal? 9. What treatment do purulent forms of cholecystitis require? 10. What must surgical treatment of acute cholecystitis be followed by?


1. What character of location may peritonitis have? 2. What forms of peritonitis are observed? 3. What kind of pathologic process may peritonitis be? 4. What is acute gen­eral peritonitis believed to be due to? 5. What most frequent conditions may cause peri­tonitis? 6. What main symptoms is this disease characterized by? 7. What is the enlarge­ment of the abdomen due to? 8. What does blood analysis usually reveal? 9. What treat­ment does this condition require? 10. What is to be removed during the operation? 11. What is emergency operative treatment known to be followed by?


1. What is immunity? 2. What kinds of immunity are there? 3. What produces a more Or less permanent protection against subsequent infection? 4. What is an anti- toxin? 5. What role docs the antitoxin play in the human body? 6. What are phagocytes and what is their role? 7. How is active artificial immunity produced?


1. Why is the name of Edward Jenner known in medicine? 2. In what century did he live? 3. Why is the incidence of smallpox rare nowadays? 4, What was one of the main causes of death in the 18th century? 5. What had people noted about the origin of small­pox? 6. What substance did E. Jenner introduce to the first child to prevent the develop­ment of smallpox? 7. Why did E. Jenner call his new method of preventing smallpox "vaccination"? 8. What were the results of Jenner's great discovery?

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