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I. Предтекстовые упражнения. I.1. Раскройте скобки и согласуйте видо–временные формы глагола внутри этого текста.




I.1. Раскройте скобки и согласуйте видо–временные формы глагола внутри этого текста.

Sterility (to mean) the absence of living microorganisms. The term sterile products(to include) products like parenteral preparations, irrigation solutions, and ophthalmic preparations. Parenteral preparations (to be) pharmaceutical dosage forms that (to inject) through one or more layers of the skin.

Sterilization (to perform) to destroy or remove all microorganisms from the product. Sterilization can (to achieve) through thermal, chemical, radioactive, or mechanical methоds. Though thermal and mechanical sterilization (to use) the longest, they (to improve) recently with the introduction of new types of filters and autoclaves. While thermal sterilization (to involve) the use of either moist or dry heat for destruction of microorganisms by cellular protein coagulation, mechanical sterilization (to remove) microorganisms and (to eliminate) particulate matter.

If a pharmacy involved in preparing sterile products not (to have) a special area called a clean room,laminar flow hoods (to be) vital to ensure aseptic preparation. Before vertical laminar flow hoods (to introduce), horizontal laminar flow hoods (to use) in pharmacies for the preparation of sterile products. According to regulations, clean rooms and laminar flow hoods (to inspect) and (to certify) when they first (to install) and at least 6–12 months thereafter.

 

I.2. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола, подходящего по смыслу, обращая внимание на видо–временную форму глагола в главном предложении. (Глаголы можно выбрать из списка внизу).

1. An autoclave will be used if moist heat sterilization ... .

2. Less exposure time will be required when a higher temperature ... .

3. The laminar flow hood will not be certified unless it ... all the necessary requirements.

4. The pharmacy will be inspected again after 12 months ... .

5. This product will be damaged if it .... to heat.

6. If other sterilization methods ... to be unacceptable, gas sterilization of the product will be used.

(to prove, to require, to use, to meet, to pass, to expose)

 

I.3. Переведите следующие вводные фразы, начинающие неопределенно–личные предложения.

Установлено, что (to determine)

Доказано, что (to prove)

Обнаружено, что (to find)

Замечено, что (to note)

Известно, что (to know)

Подсчитано, что (to estimate)

Считается, что (to believe)

Продемонстрировано, что (to demonstrate)

 

I.4. Переведите следующие неопределенно–личные предложения на русский язык.

1. In 1935 it was discovered that sulfanilamide stopped the growth of bacteria.



2. It is known that adult drug dosages cannot be extrapolated to children.

3. It is proved that one Zovirax 800 mg tablet is bioequivalent to four Zovirax 200 mg capsules.

4. It is noted that dosage requirements may vary with age, sex, and the patient’s condition.

5. It is established that glucose can be replaced with either sucrose or rice powder which are cheaper.

6. You can find herbs and herbal combinations in tablet, capsule, powdered, and dried form.

7. You should consult a physician if you suffer from any health problem.

8. One can mix the dried herb or herbs with a little water or use a paste with flour or bran.

9. One must be careful when using ophthalmic agents.

10. It is known that sodium is necessary for maintaining the proper water balance and blood pH.

11. What you can safely mix adaptogens with is other adaptogens.

 

I.5. Подчеркните в каждом предложении места, где пропущены союзы. Назовите их (союзы). Переведите эти предложения.

1. It is obvious the dosage should be reduced in elderly patients.

2. Everybody knows sodium reacts with acids and dissolves in mercury, forming amalgams.

3. The doctor said treatment could be resumed following a 1 to 4 months respite.

4. The side effects this drug may bring about are mild.

5. A finely powdered drug a suspension contains is dispersed in a liquid vehicle.

6. The components the finished dosage form contains are the API and non–drug ingredients (excipients).

7. Research findings show aspirin plays a role in cardiovascular health.



8. Cataracts are the most common eye problem people over 65 suffer from.

9. The amount of vitamins you take should be based on your body’s requirements.

 

I.6. Определите функцию причастия в этих предложениях. Переведите эти предложения на русский язык.

1. The drug taken orally is poorly absorbed.

2. Antibiotics are normally beneficial and often life-saving.

3. Some life-threatening diseases are now treated with biotechnology products.

4. Solutions applied to wounds, burns, or broken skin should be sterile.

5. The mixture can be harmful to people with pre-existing diseases.

6. Many fluid extracts are considered too potent for self-administration by patients, so they are almost never sold as OTC drugs.

7. Because of their high alcohol content, fluid extracts are sometimes referred to as 100% tinctures.

8. Insoluble powders are reduced to a fine powder and then added to the base, using geometric dilution method.

9. All of the B vitamins have a calming effect on the body and they are synergistic with each other.

10. The recommended starting dose of the drug is 3 tablets taken twice a day with meals or 6 tablets once a day with a meal.

11. Taken orally, intravenously, through an enema or in a suppository, steroid agents can cause serious adverse effects including an increased risk of infection.

12. Camphor has a healing, soothing and tightening effect on the skin.

I.7. Прочтите эти вопросы и отметьте номера тех, на которые вы можете ответить. Ответы на остальные вопросы вы можете найти в текстах этого урока.

1. What is a pharmaceutical solution?

2. How are pharmaceutical solutions broadly classified?

3. Are the words spirit and alcohol synonyms?

4. What methods of preparind liquid dosage forms do you know?

5. Why are some drugs used in injection form?

6. What liquid dosage forms must be sterile and why?

7. What is the difference between solutions and dispersions?

8. What requirement must all colloidal dispersions meet?

9. What two phases do pharmaceutical emulsions consist of?

10. What is required to prepare an emulsion?


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