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IV. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания к нему.
Wales has been united with England for hundreds of years, and for centuries England and Wales have formed one single political and administrative unit. The son and heir of the monarch is given the title "Prince of Wales", but his title has no political significance.
If you look at the bottom of the map you'll see Cardiff, the capital of Wales. Financially and industrially, Cardiff is the most important city in Wales. Most of the inhabitants of Wales live and work in this city and the adjoining area. Apart from the docks Cardiff is a beautiful city.
If you go to Wales, and can't understand what people are saying, don't worry! They are not speaking English, they are speaking Welsh. Quite a lot of people speak Welsh, and children learn it at school. The Welsh language is a Celtic language and is very different from English. In general this is the only distinctive national feature left in Wales.
The Welsh are famous for their singing. A lot of Welsh people play musical instruments, too. The Welsh national costume is still worn by some girls for folk dancing and music festivals. Wales has a very strong folk culture and many people still learn Welsh as their first language.
36) Заголовком для текста является:
a) England; b) Scotland; c) Wales; d) Ireland.
37) Ответом на вопрос «Who is the title «Prince of Wales» given to?» является:
a) Prime Minister; b) the son and heir of the monarch;
c) the son of the monarch; d) the monarch.
38) Закончите предложение «The Welsh language differs from English because it is the …» в соответствии с текстом.
a) French language; b) Russian language;
c) Scottish language; d) Celtic language.
39) Содержанию текста соответствует предложение:
a) The Welsh still proudly wear their national dress on festive occasions.
b) England and Wales are two different political and administrative units.
c) The capital of Wales is London.
d) Wales is often called the «Northern Venice».
40) Содержанию текста не соответствует предложение:
a) Most of Wales population lives and works in Cardiff.
b) Welsh is learnt at school.
c) Singing is favourite activity of the Welsh.
d) People in Wales speak English only.
ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ
THE FIRST AMERICAN
How does one characterize Benjamin Franklin? Journalist, scientist, educator, politician; writer, administrator, philosopher — he truly seemed to be able to do almost everything. His accomplishments and the talents and interests which he displayed during the course of his long life — 1706 to 1790 — have caused him to be called "the first American" and "the last universal man".
Benjamin was one of 17 children, all of whom were expected to help support the large Franklin household. As a young child, he worked in the shop of his father, a soap and candlemaker, but this work did not appeal to the boy who loved to read and study. Therefore, when he was 12, Benjamin was sent to assist his half-brother James who had a printing shop. There, surrounded by books, young Ben would often stay up late into the night reading on a wide range of subjects, and as he read, he practiced improving his own style of writing.
In 1721, James began publishing a newspaper, the New England Courant. Benjamin secretly wrote articles for the paper under the pen name of "Dame Silence Dogood", putting them under the door of print shop late at night so that his brother would not know the articles were his. They were full of humour and wise observations of life in Boston, Franklin's birthplace, and they immediately became popular with the public.
After a quarrel with James, Benjamin left Boston to seek his own fortune. Failing to find work in New York City, the 17-year-old boy went on to Philadelphia where he found a job as a printer's apprentice and soon had a wide circle of friends. Within a few years, Franklin had got married, had started his own printing shop, and was looked upon as a successful young businessman.
In 1729, Franklin bought the newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette. Besides the regular news, Franklin included his own articles and editorials alive with humour and wisdom; and soon the paper was the most widely read in all of colonial America.
At the same time, Franklin involved himself in community projects. He founded, for example, the Junto, a discussion group that met weekly to debate the issues of the day. The Junto was active for 30 years and developed into the American Philosophical Society. He also founded the country's first subscription library and organized America's first fire-fighting and fire insurance companies. He helped improve the local police force arid to establish a hospital and a college which later became the University of, Pennsylvania. He once said of his activities, "I would rather have it said, 'He lived useful', than 'he died rich'..."
In 1732, Franklin began the publication of an almanac under the name Richard Saunders (an English astrologer). He continued to publish it annually for about 25 years, and it came to be known as Poor Richard's Almanac.
As an experimenter and practical user of scientific facts, Franklin looked for easier and better ways to do things. He invented an open stove, the Franklin stove, which gave more heat and wasted less fuel than a fireplace. He also invented a musical instrument called the glass harmonica and the stepladder chair.
Franklin is especially famous for his contributions in the field of electricity. The commonest terms used in electricity today are Franklin's words: battery, armature, charge, condense, conductor, plus, minus, positive, negative — terms he made up as he made observations or conducted experiments. He is best known, however, for his discovery that electricity and natural lightning are the same. He invented the lightning rod which today protects millions of buildings from lightning.
He also did pioneer work in the field of weather observations. Few people know that it was Benjamin Franklin who discovered the movement of storms from west to east upon which all weather forecasting today has been based. He also made the first scientific study of the Gulf Stream, that mysterious body of warm water that flows up the eastern coast of the United States and then heads off for Europe.
In 1757, Franklin went to London as a colonial agent. He worked hard to bridge the developing division between England and her American colonies. He had always considered himself a loyal Englishman. Gradually, however, his sympathies became more and more American and less British, and his ideas favouring American independence became stronger.
Returning to Philadelphia in 1775 at the start of American Revolution; Franklin worked tirelessly for the cause of independence. He helped write the Declaration of Independence.
In 1781, the British surrendered, and Franklin was chosen to go to London to help negotiate the peace treaty with England. In 1783, the treaty was signed, and two years later Franklin returned home to retire. He was 79 years old. But there was still one more task for him to perform for his country. In 1787, Franklin was called from retirement, this time to help write a constitution for a democratic federal government.
He died three years later, at the age of 84.
(from Twelve, Famous Americans)
The weather in England is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That is -why it is natural for the English to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." This statement is often made by the English to describe the meteorological conditions of their country.
The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.
The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be "How do you do?" or "How are you?" And after the reply "Very well, thank you; how are you?" the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroad the English often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting.
The best time of the year in England is spring (of course, it rains in spring too).
The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire.
Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer, to France or somewhere on the Continent.
The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities and especially in London.
The fog spreads everywhere, it is in the streets and it creeps into the houses. Cars move along slowly, but still street accidents are frequent in the fog. People cannot see each other. They creep along the houses touching them with their hands not to lose their way or not to be run over by a car.
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande arid the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.
Washington is the capital of the United States of America. It is situated in the District of Columbia and is like no other city of the USA. It's the world's largest one-industry city. And that industry is government. The White House, where the US President lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the US Congress, and the Supreme Court, are all in Washington.
Washington was named after the first US President George Washington. He selected the place for the capital and Pierre L'Enfant, a French engineer, designed the city.
Washington was first settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the Federal capital.
Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. In the very centre of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol — a big white dome standing on a circle of pillars. The 535 members of the Congress meet here to discuss the nation's affairs. It's easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.
Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress, the largest library in the States. It contains more than 13 million books, more than 19 million manuscripts, including the personal papers of the US presidents.
The White House is the official residence of the US President. He works in the Oval Office.
One can hardly find a park, a square or an open area in Washington without a monument or a memorial. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument.
There are some important museums in Washington where you can see all kinds of things: famous paintings and sculptures, the dresses of Presidents' wives, the original of the Declaration of Independence, the largest blue diamond in the world, etc.
There are 5 universities in Washington.
There are no skyscrapers in Washington, because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. No building in the city may be more than 40 metres tall. Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the United States come to see their capital.
Agatha Christie is known all over the world as the Queen of Crime. She wrote 78 crime novels, 19 plays and 6 romantic novels under the name of Mary Westmacott. Her books have been translated into 103 foreign languages. She is the third best-selling author in the world (after Shakespeare and the Bible). Many of her novels and short stories have been filmed. The Mousetrap, her most famous play, is now the longest-running play in history.
Agatha Christie was born at Torquay, Devonshire. She was educated at home and took singing lessons in Paris. She began writing at the end of the First World War. Her first novel. The Mysterious Affair at Styles, was published in 1920. That was the first appearance of Hercule Poirot, who became one of the most popular private detectives since Sherlock Holmes. This little Belgian with the egg-shaped head and the passion for order amazes everyone by his powerful intellect and his brilliant solutions to the most complicated crimes.
Agatha Christie became generally recognised in 1926, after the publishing of her novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd. It is still considered her masterpiece.
When Agatha Cristie got tired of Hercule Poirot she invented Miss Marple, a deceptively mild old lady with her own method of investigation.
Her last Poirot book. Curtain, appeared shortly before her death, and her last Miss Marple story. Sleeping Murder, and her autobiography were published after her death.
Agatha Christie's success with millions of readers lies in her ability to combine clever plots with excellent character drawing, and a keen sense of humour with great powers of observation. Her plots always mislead the reader and keep him in suspense. He cannot guess who the criminal is. Fortunately, evil is always conquered in her novels.
Agatha Christie's language is simple and good and it is pleasant to read her books in the original.
PRESS IN BRITAIN
Probably in no other country are there such great differences between the various national daily newspapers — in the type of news they report and the way they report it.
On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers; The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, the Financial Times and The Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport.
On the other hand, there are the "populars" and "tabloids", so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids — the most widely read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, The Sun and The Daily Star — concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them.
The tabloid press is much more popular than the quality press.
In some countries, newspapers are owned by government or 6y political parties. This is not the case in Britain. Newspapers here are mostly owned by individuals or by publishing companies, and the editors of the papers are usually allowed considerate freedom of expression. This is not to say that newspapers are without political bias. Papers like The Daily Telegraph, The Daily Express and The Sun, for example, usually reflect Conservative opinions in ,their comment and reporting, while the Daily Mirror and The Guardian have a more left-wing bias.
In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are nine national papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "colour supplements" — separate colour magazines which contain photographically-illustrated feature articles. Reading a Sunday paper, like having a big Sunday lunch, is an important tradition in many British households.
Besides, nearly every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers.
The British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world.
The State Tretyakov Gallery is one of the best-known picture galleries in Russia. It takes its name from its founder Pavel Tretyakov, a Moscow merchant and art connoisseur.
In the mid-19th century, Tretyakov began to collect Russian paintings. He visited all the exhibitions and art studios and bought the best pictures of contemporary artists. He was especially fond of the works of the Peredvizhniki (or Wanderers) — the artists who belonged to the Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions. Little by little Tretyakov extended his range of interest and began to collect earlier Russian paintings. More than once he had to add wings to his house in Lavrushinsky Pereulok, because his collection grew larger and larger.
In 1881 Pavel Tretyakov opened his collection to the public. 11 years later he donated it to the city of Moscow. Since then the gallery has received hundreds of pictures from other museums and private collections.
The Tretyakov Gallery reflects the whole history of Russian art, from the 11th century to the present day.
It has a rich collection of old Russian icons. The world-famous icon is The Trinity painted in the early 15th century by Andrei Rublev.
The gallery contains halls devoted to the magnificent works of such 18th-century celebrities as Rokotov, Levitsky, Borovikovsky, Shchedrin.
The first half of the 19th century is represented by brilliant paintings by Bryullov, Tropinin, Ivanov, Venetsianov. The second half of the 19th century is especially well represented. The gallery has the best collection of the Peredvizhniki, such as Kramskoy, Perov, Ghe, Yaroshenko, Myasoyedov, and others: Linked with the Peredvizhniki are such great names in Russian art as Surikov, Repin, Vereshchagin, Vasnetsov. Levitan. There you can see historical paintings, portraits, still-lifes, landscapes, seascapes, etc.
Further on we find the cream of turn-of-the century Russian art: Serov, Vrubel, Kustodiev.
Canvases of Soviet painters are housed in the new building situated on Krymskaya Naberezhnaya (Crimean Embankment).
The Tretyakov Gallery is not only Russia's biggest and most important museum of Russian Art. It is also a research, cultural and educational centre.
SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
The British are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain.
One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn't summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider anything unfair, they sometimes say "That isn't cricket".
But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football grounds. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play.
There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley.
Rugby football is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.
Next to football, the chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world.
Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.
A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill — from practically helpless to the extremely able.
The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing.
Indeed sport in one form or another is an essential part of daily life in Britain.