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Practice task. I. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and state the lexical translation technique you employed. № п/п SL word

I. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian and state the lexical translation technique you employed.

№ п/п SL word Translation Way of translation
  культ личности    
  media event    
  old country    
  queen mother    
  upgrade (e.g. of a device)    
  black economy    
  visiting professor    
  roller coaster    
  вечный огонь (у мемориала)    
  job fair    
  health maintenance    
  dress-down Friday    
  shuttle diplomacy    
  labor spy    


II. Translate these sentences into Russian and state the lexico-grammatical techniques you had to resort to. The first two sentences are given as an example.


English sentence Russian translation
He also gave money to a small North Carolina college, which became Duke University. Он также пожертвовал деньги на маленький колледж в Северной Каролине, который позже приобрел статус университета и был назван в честь своего мецената «Дьюк юнивесити».   Addition
For example, over many years corporations have created enough wealth to raise living standards dramatically in industrialized nations. Например, за много лет корпорации накопили достаточный запас материальных ценностей, чтобы значительно поднять жизненный уровень населения в промышленно развитых странах.   nation - 1) народ, нация; народность; 2) государство, страна   Specification
University professors sing the praises of Einstein, Socrates, and occasionally a more prestigious version of ‘Mr. Chips’.     *Мистер Чипс - центральный персонаж книги Дж. Хилтона [Hilton, James] " До свидания, мистер Чипс" [" Goodbye, Mr. Chips" ] (1935) и одноименного фильма по ней (1939); учитель латыни, отдающий все силы и любовь своим ученикам. Синоним учителя, преданного своему делу.
He [Duke] installed Bonsak machines in four new manufacturing plants that soon ran 24 hours a day.    
Child labour, once widespread in the United States, is no longer permitted, but exists in other nations.  
The past 20 years have seen novel changes in sentencing practices …  
Other conceptions of labor dispense with these assumptions.    
All successful designers, from an icon like Gaultier to a young tyro emerging from the backstreets of New York, understand that they are running a business.  
Hopefully tomorrow's public relations practitioners will exercise more ethical control than some of their earlier forerunners.    
In the 1980s, much academic ink was spilled over the “productivity paradox, ” where businesses had invested heavily in information technology over the preceding two decades, but, despite the capital outlay, had very little to show for their efforts.  
In October 2005 he [Williamson] added an additional, iridescent feather to his cap by being appointed as the designer at Emilio Pucci.  
There are millions of candidates online, reviewing hundreds of thousands of job openings listed at thousands of career sites on the Web.  
Mass tourism did not really begin to develop, however, until two things had occurred.    
Zara is renowned for whisking budget interpretation of catwalk style into its stores with breathtaking speed.  


III. Translate the following sentences into Russian taking into account a ‘theme-rheme’ relation between the setting and the point being made.


№ п/п   English sentence Russian translation
  A variety of activities can be used to emphasize a woman’s development of the ability to create her own goals.  
  Holocaust memorials and museums have become important tourist destinations throughout Europe.  
  It’s worth noting that hand-painted poster boards are still used to advertise movies.  
  The cease-fire has gone into effect.  
  A long-standing relationship exists between sports and the notion of masculinity.  
  The Washington Post’s role in uncovering the Watergate scandal is another example of the media’s involvement in the national events.  
  Communications are effective in a performance improvement program because of the way our brains work. performance improvement program - программа по повышению производительности труда  


IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian and state the type of the grammatical transformation you resorted to.


Type of grammatical transformation English sentence Russian sentence
  Companies in ascending industries change societies by altering all three of their primary elements – ideas, institutions, and material things.    
  The Bradford Formula is used to calculate an “attendance score”.  
  So soon as this is recognized, the distinction between economy in consumption and economy in investment becomes blurred. For, up to a point, consumption is investment in personal productive capacity.    
  Prevent domination by individual members of the group by bringing in other people and asking cross-reference questions.    
  The theory is that short, frequent and unplanned absences are more disruptive than longer absences.  
  Communications are effective in a performance improvement program because of the way our brains work.  
  Our next stop is a factory floor, where four cutting tables can cut as many as 8, 000 garments a day.  
  Bowling is another sport in which a number of presidents actively participated in while in the White House.    
  Clearly, a focus on practice is fundamental.  
  Many persons are unaware that these crimes exist.  
  The Internet is a valuable recruiting tool, especially for reaching prospective employees in their twenties and thirties.    
  This scenario is routine, happening literally hundreds of thousands of times in jurisdictions throughout the United States each year.  
  The UN Development Program says the goal of in­vestment and trade liberalization is to improve the quality of life.  
  But I won’t pretend to be a detached, disinterested observer. Nobody believes in them anymore anyway.  



V. Analyze the following article from the point of view of employing translation techniques.

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