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VIII. Strong andweak forms. Unstressed vocalism

In actual speech there is a great number of words which are pro­nounced in the weak or contracted form. They are more common than non-contracted or full forms. It applies to all styles and different man­ner of speech — formal or informal, slow or rapid tempo.

Given below are the lists of essential weak and contracted forms.

The Use of Weak and Contracted Forms

1. If a word is stressed the strong form must be used.

2. Strong forms are used at the end of the intonation group
< even if the word is unstressed, e.g.

Where did Mary come irom? /Iwss did imsan 4клт fn> m/

The only exceptions are pronouns. They retain the weak form in final position, e.g.

John suspects her./idstm sas^pekts Ьэ/ We adore them, /wi- svdo: 5эт/

3. Demonstrative pronoun that always has the strong form (even
if not stressed), e.g.

That's exactly what I want. /Basts igizaekth wot ai, wont/ That play I saw was wonderful. /9set iplei ai iso: wsz»d

4. Weak forms ending in /э/ are not used before vowels (see
table for special forms).

5. The weak forms of words beginning with /h/, e. g. have, has,
lie, him, etc. may or may not be preceded by /h/. The /h/ is in­
variably used following a pause, for example at the beginning of
a sentence. In other cases the use of the /h/-forms is in free varia­
tion with /h/-less forms.

6. Have as a main verb is usually in the strong form, s de­
laines contracted forms with have may be used: I've, we've, they've
{never he has, she has), e.g.

'I've, 'we've, ithey've a 'bit of a problem, /'aiv, 'wi: v, iSeiv э 'bit 9v эчртЫзт/

7. Scnorants /1, m, n/ in contracted forms are typically syllabic.

I John111 come. /1(%оп1хклт/ ibread and vbuiter /'oread n

8. < ls> is pronounced as /z/ after all lenis (excluding /z, 5,
and after vowels:

Tibs 7

Essential Weak Forms


Class Word Weak Forms
articles a an the /э/ not before vowels /эп, n/ only before vowels /? a, ffi/ before vowels
conjunctions and as than that but or /and, an, n/ /az/ /San/; /ffsen/ is hardly ever used /Sat/ /bat/ /o-, a/ before consonants /эт, or/ before vowels
particles there to /ffa/ before consonants /0эг/ before vowels /ta/ before consonants /tu/ before vowels
prepositions at for from of to' into through /at/ /fa/; /far/ before vowels /fram/ /av/: /a/ often used before /ö / /ta/; /tu:, tu/ used before vowels /mta/; /intu/ before vowels /Bra/
verb be am ('m') are ('re) is ('s) was were /эт, т/ /a/; /ar/ before vowels /s, z/ /wa/; /war/ used before vowels
auxiliary v^rh have has ('s) have ('ve) had (*d) /az, s, z/ /av, V/ /ad, d/
other auxiliary and modal verbs do does can will shall would should must could /da, du/ /dAZ/ /кэп/ AM/'' /ad, d/ /sd, d/ /mast, mas/ /kud, kd/




Class Word Weak Forms
pronouns them us our you he she we me her /Ээт, EFm/ /as/ /a-/ (is also used in stressed contexts) /juV. /Ju/ /hi, hi, t, i/ /Л. Л/ /wi, wi/ /mi, mi/ /ha, з: /; /э/ before consonants
negatives not nor /not, at/ /no/ before consonants /пэг/ before vowels

Essential Contracted Forms


Deriva­tion Full Form Written Con­tracted Form Spoken Con­tracted Form Comments
be I am you are he is she is it is we are they are I'm you're he's she's it's we're they're /aim/ /jo:, jua/ /hfcz/» /W* /its/ /'wte/ /Зеэг/ Лкг, juar/ before vowels /wfcar/ " 1 before /Эеэг/ / vowels
have I have you have he has she has it has we have they have I've you've he's she's it's we've they've /aiv/ /J«v/ * fill'Of /its/ /wkv/» /9eiv/ Not necessarily used if have is a main verb. Cannot be used iF have is a main verb. Not necessarily used if have is a main verb.
shall will I shall you will he will she will I'll you'll he'll she'll /ail/ г Ä /  

These may be contracted /tiB, Jiz, w», Juv, wiv, Jul, wid, Jud/,



Deriva­tion Full Form Written Con­tracted Form Spoken Con­tracted Form Comments
  it will we shall/will they will tfii we'll they'll /'Itl/ /Wi: l/ /foil/  
had+ should/ would I had (should) would you had (should) would he had/would she had/would it had/would we had/would they had/would I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd they'd /aid/ /jad/ /hi; d/ Affcd/ /itad/ /wfcd/ /Seid/ Context usually makes it clear whether had or should/ would is meant.
not are not were not do not shall not will not cannot must not dare not aren't weren't don't shan't won't can't mustn't daren't /d; nt/1 /wa: nt/ /daunt/ /Jamt/ /waunt/ Aant/ /'nusnt/ /desnt/ Also used in aren't. All auxiliaries may combine with n't to form contracted forms and only the most significant and/or irregular are given here. There are many more such as isn't, wasn't, couldn't, shouldn't /iznt, woznt, kudnt, 'Judnt/.
let let us let's /lets/ Only as auxiliary verb.
there there is there are there wil! there would there's there are there'll there'd /Эеэг, Яег, Ээг/ /Яеагэ, Зегэ/ /Эта!,»э1/ /Dead, ifed/ /'ffearer, 'Эегэг/ be­fore vowels

The older contracted form of aren't and Isn't was uln't. This Is tiow heard only In
7-182 193

iBob's vhere. /ob t/ iVan's, come. /ivsenz чклт/ Boy's gone, /tboiz vgon/

< is> is pronounced as /s/ after the fortis (excluding /s, X, tf/)j

Uack's here, /'dsseks vhi3/ (Robert's gone, /irrjbsts %gon' I Pete's come. /ipi: ts 4клт/

< is> is pronounced as /iz/ after /s, z, J1, g, t)7, < has> is pro­nounced as /3z/, e.g.

Max is coming later, /imseks iz ikAmirj Jeite/

Mr. Hodge has arrived, /miste 'tradj эг a, raivd/

Jones has decided to leave, /icfceunz ez difsaidid ta %li: v/

9. Some common grammatical words do not have a regular weak form, e.g.

on, up, when, then, one, what, where

As has already been mentioned, unstressed vowels in English may either change their quality and quantity or remain unchanged. For example the indefinite article a may be pronounced as /э/, which differs from /ei/ qualitatively. He may be pronounced as /hi'/ which diilers from /hi: / quantitatively. In the word potato the final /9U/ remains unchanged though it occurs in an unaccented syllable /pa'teitsu/.

The major role in the system of unstressed vocalism in English belongs to the neutral vowel /a/. It originated as a result of the development of the analytical grammar structures, which led to the reduction of some vowels not only in inflexions but also in other parts of lexical and grammatical words.

According to the data of modern phoneticians /i, э, u, ou/ are always unstressed, /ei, ai/ are unstressed rather often, /d:, л, э: au, is/ are rarely unstressed, ja., u:, i:, 01, еэ, иэ/ are practically never unstressed.

The neutral vowel /з/ may alternate with any vowel of full formation, e.g.

/i: /—/э/ the /5i: /— the lesson /Зэ Uesn/

/e/—/9/ pence /pens/—three pence /trepans/

/se/—/э/ land /lsend/—England /lirjgfend/

/a/—/3/ particle /«ptttikl/—particular /psltikjula/

Ы—Ш a combine /э ikombain/—to combine /Ь кэт'Ьат/

/и/—/э/ fully /ifult/—playfully /ipleifah/

/и: /—/э/ to him /tu- him/—to the table /ta Ъ Iteibl/

/Л/—/Э/ some Mm/—tiresome /itaiasgm/

/3.7—/э/ herd /ha: d/—shepherd /! j" ep3d/.

/ei/—/э/ face /feis/—preface /iprefas/

/ai/—/э/ shire /J1 аю/—Yorkshire /ijo: kjty

/аи/— Ш mouth /mau0/—Plymouth /'рктэО/

/эй/—/э/ folk /fouk/—Norfolk /'пэ: Гэк/ /га/—/э/ revere /nivis/—reverence /irevarens/ /еэ/—/э/ there's /Ö eaz/—there's S

On the phonological level the question arises about the phonemic status of the neutral vowel /э/. Is it an independent phoneme, or a va­riant of the phoneme with which it alternates? This question can be answered in terms of the distinctive function of the phoneme. In pairs like, for example, some /элт/ — some /sam/ /3/ performs distinctive function. In the sentence / read some /алт/ book some means " a certain". In the sentence / read some /sam/ books some means " several". Similar pairs in which the members differ in quality prove the independent phonemic status of the /э/ phoneme.

From the position of the Moscow and Leningrad phonological schools the relations between the vowel of full formation and /э/ in the pairs mentioned above should be viewed differently.

The representatives of the Moscow phonological school consider such relations to be interaHophonic, because Ы is considered by them in the pairs like /sAm/ — /ssm/ to be an allophone of the /л/ phoneme, or hyperphoneme.

The representatives of the Leningrad school state that in the above examples /3/ and /л/ undergo interphonemic changes and that they are separate phonemes.

In the Russian language vowels in unstressed syllables may coincide in speech. E.g. /0, a/ in the first pretonic syllable are both pronounced as /л/: /л/ ват, IЦ лень.

The peculiarity of the unstressed vocalism of Russian is that an unstressed vowel never preserves its full form. Cases like potato /pa'teitgu/, artistic /o: itistik/ are very common in English, e.g. /ib/ paragraph /ipasragrof/

conservatoire /kanJseivatva: / radar /ireida: /, /ireida/ /1/ graduate /tgrsedjuit/

surface /'seihs/

effect /lifekt/

ticket /itikit/ /эй/ also /Id: Is9U/ zero /tziarö u/ /л/ tumult /ltju: mAlt/

There are some digraphs in English which are pronounced in unstressed syllables either as /э/ or /1/, e. g. er — teacher /ftiitfa/ ar—mortar /'mo: to/ or—motor /imauts/ et—foreign /iform/ ir—elixir /iihksa/ ie—hobbie /Ihobi/ ou(s)—famous /ifeimas/

7* 195


1. Are weak and contracted forms common for actual speech? 2. Give examples in which articles, conjunctions, particles and preposi­tions are pronounced in the weak forms. 3. Give examples in which the verbs to be, to have and the negatives not, nor are pronounced in the weak forms. 4. Give examples in which auxiliary verbs are pronounced in their weak forms. 5. What are essential contracted forms for the verbs to be, to have, shall, will, had + should, would, for the nega­tive not, particles let, there} Use them in your own examples or in the examples taken from literature. 6. What rules for the use of weak and contracted forms do you know? 7. What role does the phoneme /э/ play in the system of unstressed vocalism? 8. With what vowels of full formation does hi alternate? 9. What phonological status does Ы possess? 10. What are the peculiar features of English unstressed vocalism?


•1. Transcribe these words. Single out the pairs of phonemes in which /э/ al­ternates with the vowel of full formation in the unstressed position.

armour (броня) —army (армия)

allusion (намек) —illusion (иллюзия)

tell 'em (скажи им) —tell him (скажи ему)

sitter (живая натура) —city (город)

forward (передний) —foreword (предисловие)

experiment (опыт) —experiment (экспериментиро­

some (некоторое количество) —some (некоторый, какой-то)

that (который, относительное —that (тот, указательное ме-

местоимение) стоимение)

variety (разнообразие) —various (различный)

estimable (достойный уважения) —estimate (оценивать)

*2. Transcribe these words. Underline the vowels of full formation in the un­stressed position.

protest n, content n, comment n, abstract adj, asphalt n, cannot, epoch, blackguard, export n, humbug, expert n, institute

*3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the dropping off of hi in the unstressed position.

often, session, special, difficult, some, can, conference, dictionary, April, have

*4. a) Transcribe these words and underline the sounds of full formation in the pretonJc syllables, b) Give examples of Russian vowel reduction in a similar position.

emission usurp aorta

eleven Uganda oil-painting

ensign upturn coyote

abstract urbane aerologist

objective idea hereunder

orchestral outwit Eurasian

S. Read the exercise. Pay attention to the strong and weak forms which are singled out.

Red and white. /Ired (3)n, wait/ That man said: " That's good." /'Sset imaen vsed iSssts»gud/ Let's do it tomorrow, /llets Idu: it ts.nrarau/ I'm a student, /aim э vstjudsnt/ These boys are naughty. /Jö i: z 'boiz э 4no: ti/ These books are interesting. /I8i: z ibuks эг kin-tnstirj/ These bags are black. /'Ö i: z ibsegz э Jilgsk/ Which is cor­rect? /iwitj* iz kajekt/ I have many books, /ai lhaev 'mem vbuks/ He needs some books, /hi 'ni: dz ssm vbuks/ I want some book, /ai iwont isAra, buk/

Come for the ticket. /1клт fa 5з»tikit/ Come for a change, /1клт far 3 vfeind5/ Would you like to stay? /iwud ju Uaik ta 4stei/ Do you want to argue? /Idu ju iwrjnt tu, agju: / You shouldn't have done it /ju Ijudnt av kdAn it/

Control Tasks

*1. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the peculiar feature of the 2j [English unstressed vocalism,

latchkey, simplicity, protest n, skylark, pantheon, bulldog, out­door, dining-room, into, mildew, woodcut, heart-burn, humpback, highway, simplify, highbrow, convoy, rainbow, raincoat, underwear, armature

2. Give some examples from the English language to illustrate the qualitative
and quantitative changes of vowels in the unstressed position.

3. Prove the functional independence of the id phoneme in the English language.

*4. Transcribe the passage below. Write out some examples of the strong and weak forms. Mark them with SF, WF, accordingly.

The Guardian newspaper is famous for its misprints. Why, there is even a Guardian, misprint preserved in brass for posterity. Some years ago the El Vino wine bar decided to put up a plaque in honour of Philip Hope-Wallace, its most faithful and probably wittiest habit­ue. And so, mentioning his eminence as a wit, raconteur and critic, it was duly placed above his usual seat on the wall and unveiled at a small ritual.

'I don't want to seem ungrateful, ' said the recipient, peering at it closely, 'but there's only one " 1" in Philip and you've put in two.'

'How can that be? ' gasped the management. 'We were careful to check with the Guardian.'


Intonation is a complex unity of non-segmental, or prosodic fea­tures of speech: 1. melody, pitch of the voice; 2. sentence stress; 3. temporal characteristics (duration, tempo, pausation); 4. rhythm; 5. tamber (voice quality).

Intonation is very important. It organizes a sentence, determines communicative types of sentences and clauses, divides sentences into intonation groups, gives prominence to words and phrases, expresses contrasts and attitudes. The two main functions of intonation are: communicative and expressive.

There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical.

The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. Sweet, D. Jones, G. Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. Ward, R. Kingdon, J. О 'Con­nor, A. Gimson and others. It is traditional and widely used. Accord­ing to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). Their theory is based on the assumption that intonation consists of basic functional " blocks". They pay much attention to these " blocks" but not to the way they are connected. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superim­posed on the lexico-grammatical structure. In fact the aim of commu­nication determines the intonation structure not vice versa.

The grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. Halliday, The main unit of intonation is a clause. Intona­tion is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality marks the beginning and the end of a tone-group, Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. Tone is the third unit in Halliday's system. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the atti­tude of the speaker. Halliday's theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation.

The founder of theTAmerican school of intonation is K. Pike. In his book " The Intonation of American English" he considers " pitch phonemes" and " contours" to'be the main units of intonation. He des­cribes different contours and their meanings, but the word " meaning" stands apart from communicative function of intonation. A. Anti-pova in her " System of English Intonation" characterizes the approach of the American school to the study of intonation system as " mechani­cal".


Speech melody or pitch of the voice is closely connected with sen­tence stress. Crystal states that " the only realizations of stress, which are linguistic, which are capable of creating an effect of relative pro­minence, of accent, are those which are effected with the complex

help of pitch, quantity and quality variations. The most important is pitch." L

Successive contours of intonation singled out of the speech flow may be defined differently: sense-groups (semantic approach), breath-groups (extra-linguistic approach), tone groups (phonological definition)a intonation groups, tone (tonetic) units, pitch and stress patterns. Each tone unit has one peak of prominence in the form of a nuclear pitch movement and a slight pause after the nucleus that end the tone unit and is usually shorter than the term " pause" in pausation system.

The tone unit is one of the most important units of intonation theory. It contains one nucleus, which is often referred to as nuclear tone, or peak of prominence. The interval between the highesfand the lowest pitched syllable is called the range of a sense-group. The range usually depends on the pitch level: the higher the pitch, the wid­er the range. High, medium and low pitch of the voice is shown on the staves. The change of pitch within the last stressed syllable of the tone-group is called a nuclear tone. It may occur not only in the~nu-cleus but extend to the tail — terminal tone.

The inventory of tonal types given by different scholars is dif­ferent. Sweet distinguishes 8 tones: - level, ' high rising,, low ris­ing, лhigh falling,»low falling, v compound rising, л compound falling, - rising-falling-rising. Palmer has four basic tones: falling, high rising, falling-rising, low rising. He also mentions high-fall­ing and " low level" and describes coordinating tonal sequences (" " identical tone groups), and subordinating tonal sequences (■ ' " dissimilar tone groups). Kingdon distinguishes high and low, normal and emphatic tones and gives rising, falling, falling-rising (divided and undivided), rising-falling, rising-falling-rising and level tone (the latter is not nuclear). O'Connor and Arnold give low and high falls and rises, rise-fall, fall-rise, and a compound fall 4- rise (the latter is considered a conflation of two simple tunes). Halliday recognizes seven major types, \ ',,, л, v, 4+, л+/.

Vassilyev gives ten tone units. He states that tones can be moving and level. Moving tones can be: simple, complex and compound. They are: Low Fall; High Wide Fall; High Narrow Fall; Low Rise; High Narrow Rise; High Wide Rise; Rise-Fall; Fall-Rise; Rise-Fall-Rise. The most common compound tones are: High Fall + High Fall; High Fall 4- Low Rise. Level Tones can be pitched at High, Mid and Low level.

Methods of indicating intonation are different: wedge-like symbols, staves with dots and dashes, which correspond to unstressed and stressed syllables within the voice range, tonetic stress marks, numeri­cal system, etc. The system of staves is the most vivid, the system of

1 Crystal D. Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English.— Cambridge,
1969, — P. 120.

2 Crystal's terminology.

tonetic symbols is the most economical and vivid, that's why they are most popular in our textbooks.

'The tonetic units that constitute the total tone pattern (contour) are the following:

1. unstressed and half stressed syllables preceding the first stressed
syllable constitute the prehead of the intonation group;

2. stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable
constitute the head, body or scale of the intonation group;

3. the last stressed syllable, within which fall or rise in the intona­
tion group is accomplished, is called the nucleus; the syllable marked
with the nuclear tone may take a level stress;

4. the syllables (or one syllable), that follow the nucleus, consti­
tute the tail, e.g.

It's been a 'very igood, even ing for me.



scale nucleus


The most important part of the intonation group is the nucleus, which carries nuclear stress (nuclear tone).

According to the changes in the voice pitch preheads can be: rising, mid and low:

  rising • * • mid 4 f #


Scales can be: descending, ascending and level.

According to the direction of pitch movement within and between syllables, descending and ascending scales can be: stepping, sliding and scandent;



descending stepping descending sliding descending scandent


_ *  
  t *\  
  I - *

ascending stepping

ascending sliding

ascending scandent

nmminiS 1 thef^ds ш the descending scale is made specially

SB5 th/f 1C4 arrrJs P]aced before the dash-mark which indicates the stressed syllable on the staves, or before the word

made specially prominent in the text— f\/ accidental rise, e.g. 'John

is |very tbusy.

This type of scale is called

up broken descending scale.

The falling tones convey completion and finality, they are categor­ic in character. The rising tones are incomplete and non-categoric. Of all the level tones mid level tone is used most frequently. The level tones may express hesitation and uncertainty.

Attitudinal function of intonation can be observed in utterances consisting of one word and in utterances consisting of more than a single word. In the latter cases it is not only that the type of the nu­cleus is important but also the pitch of the utterance preceding the nu­cleus: prehead and head. The attitudinal function of different tonal types in statements, special and general questions, commands and in­terjections is accurately and thoroughly described in the " Intonation of Colloquial English" by J. D. O'Connor and G. F. Arnold and in our textbooks on phonetics.


Sentence stress is a greater prominence of words, which are made more prominent in an intonation group. The special prominence of accented words is achieved through the greater force of utterance and changes in the direction of voice pitch, accompanied by changes in the quantity of the vowels under stress (in unstressed position vowels may undergo qualitative changes, see unstressed vocalism).

The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of stress the dominant perceptual component is loudness, in the case of accent it is pitch. Degrees of stress in an utterance cor­relate with the pitch range system. Nuclear stress is the strongest — it carries the most important information. Non-nuclear stresses are subdivided into full and partial. Full stress occurs only in the head of an intonation group, partial stress occurs also in the prehead and tail. Partial stresses in the prehead are most frequently of a low va­riety, high partial stress can occur before a low head. Words given partial stress do not lose their prominence completely, they retain the whole quality of a vowel.

In tone-groups stress may undergo alternations under the influ­ence of rhythm, but there are some rules concerning words that are usually stressed or unstressed in an utterance.

Given below is the list of words that are usually stressed:

Nouns.1 Adjectives. Numerals. Interjections. Demonstrative pro­nouns. Emphatic pronouns. Possessive pronouns (absolute form). In­terrogative pronouns. Indefinite pronouns: somebody, someone, some­thing, anybody, anyone, anything (used as subject). Indefinite neg­ative pronouns: no, none, no one, nobody, nothing. Indefinite pro-

Such as " thing", " person", " place" are unstressed.

nouns some, any (expressing quality). Indefinite pronouns: all, each, every, other, either, both. Indefinite quantitative pronouns: much, many, a little, a few. Notional verbs. Auxiliary verbs (negative con­tracted forms). Two-word prepositions. Two-word conjunctions. Par­ticles: only, also, too, even, just.

The words that are usually unstressed:

Personal pronouns. Reflexive pronouns. Reciprocal pronouns. Relative pronouns.1 Possessive pronouns (conjoint form). Indefinite pronouns: somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything (used as object). Indefinite pronouns some, any (when expressing quan­tity). Auxiliary verbs2 (affirmative form). One-word prepositions and conjunctions. Articles. Particles: there, to. Modal verbs (contract­ed forms and general questions are exceptions).

The meaning of the verbs may, should, must changes depending on whether they " are stressed or unstressed, e. g. You '•may go — possi­bility. You may 'go — permission.

Stresses in an utterance provide the basis for identification and understanding of the content, they help to perform constitutive, dis­tinctive and identificatory function of intonation. These functions are performed jointly with the pitch component of intonation.


Rhythm is the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syl­lables. It^is' so'typical of an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm betrays the non-English origin of the speaker even in cases of " cor­rect" pronunciation.

The'phenomenon of rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic nature of stress.

The units of the rhythmical structure of an utterance are stress groups от rhythmic groups. The perception of boundaries between rhythmic groups is associated with the stressed syllables or peaks of prominence.

Unstressed syllables have a tendency to cling to the preceding stressed syllables — enclitics, or to the following stressed syllables — proclitics. In English, as a rule, initial unstressed syllables cling to the following stressed syllables, non-initial unstressed syllables are enclitics:

**^~^ — usual rhythm pattern,.T>, — exceptions with the

initial unstressed syllables.

Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at approximately the same period of time, unstressed syllables are pronounced more

1 The pronoun which in non-defining clauses is usually stressed, e.g. I
gave him a spade, which tool he hid in the barn.

2 In general questions the affirmative forms may be stressed and unstres­

rapidly: the greater the number of unstressed syllables, the quicker they are pronounced. Proclitics are pronounced faster than enclitics. Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. Under the influence of rhythm words which are normally pronounced with two equally strong stresses may lose one of them, or may have their word stress realized differently, e. g.

'Picca'dilly—-'Piccadilly 'Circus—'close to Picca'dilly

I princess—a 'royal prin'cess

lindiarubber—a 'piece of india'rubber—an Hndiarubber vball

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