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And Declamatory Style




1. Conversational style as the most commonly used type of phonetic style.

2. Publicistic style – an oratorical variety of public speech.

3. The declamatory style as a highly emotional and expressive phonetic style.

 

Informal conversational English is opposed to written English read aloud is characterized by:

a) a high proportion of hesitation features of all kinds;

b) a substantial amount of overlapping and simultaneous speech;

c) a great amount of non-obligatory assimilation;

d) a very high frequency of simple falling tones, a high frequency of stepping down head and almost complete absence of stepping up head;

e) a high frequency of compound tones, especially the fall + rise; a frequent use of low rising tones on statement; the occasional use of very emphatic tones, a common use of high unstressed syllables especially in the prehead;

f) a strong tendency to use short intonation groups and to break up lengthy intonation groups wherever possible;

g) a frequent use of pauses which occur in places where they are not regular in formal conversation.

Informality of conversational English is also created by unexpected introduction of dialect forms, elements of very formal language, slips of tongue, hesitant drawls, uneven tempo, significant variations in loudness, paralinguistic features.

The basic aim of publicistic speech is to extend persuasive and emotional influence on the listeners, and volitional and desiderative information is predominant in oratorical texts/speech. The invariant of phonostylistic characteristics of publicistic speech is as follows:

1) timbre: dignified, self-assured, concerned and personally involved;

2) delimitation: phonopassages – phrases – intonation groups;

3) style – making prosodic features;

a) loudness – enormously increased, ranging from forte to fortissimo;

b) ranges and levels – greatly varied; the predominant use of wide ranges within the phonopassages;

c) rate – moderately slow; the public speaker slows down the tempo of his speech to bring out communicatively important centres;

d) pauses – definitely long between the passages; a great number of breath-taking pauses; a frequent stop of phonation before the emphatic semantic centre; “ rhetorical silence” is used to exert influence on the public;

e) rhythm – properly organized;

4) the accentuation of semantic centres:

a) terminal tones – mostly emphatic, especially on emotionally underlined semantic centres; in non-final intonation groups falling-rising tones are frequent;

b) pre-nuclear patterns – common use of the descending sequence of stressed syllables; a large proportion of falling and stepping heads frequently broken by accidental rises to increase the emphasis;



c) the contrast between accented and unaccented segments – not great;

d) paralinguistic features.

Attitudinal, volitional and intellectual functions of intonation are of primary importance in the performance of the declamatory style. This style is represented by a written form of the language read aloud or recited. The invariant of phonostylistic characteristics of the declamatory prose reading is as follows:

1) timbre: concerned, personally involved, emotionally rich;

2) delimitation: phonopassages – phrases – intonation groups;

3) style – making prosodic features;

a) loudness – varied according to the size of the audience;

b) ranges and levels – variable;

c) rate – deliberately slow, necessitated by the purpose of reading changes in the speed of reading utterances are determined by the syntactic structures, importance of information and the degree of emphasis;

d) pauses – long, especially between the passages. The declamatory reading is distinctly marked by a great number of prolonged emphatic pauses;

e) rhythm – properly organized; the isochronic recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables;

4) the accentuation of semantic centres:

a) terminal tones – common use of categoric low and high falls in final and even initial intonation groups and on semantic centres; occasional use of rising and level tones to break the monotony;

b) pre-nuclear patterns – varied, contain patterns which have both common emphatic and non-emphatic usage; for the emphasis the following intonation patterns are most frequently used:

low head + high fall

high head + low fall

high head + high fall

stepping head + high fall

c) the contrast between accented and unaccented segments – not great.

 

Лекция 8


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