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We weren't able to/ didn't manage/ couldn'tget there in time.

(b)due to the existing laws:

The more she studied, the less sure she became, till idly turning the pages, she came to Scotland. People could be married there without any of this nonsense. (Galsworthy)

You cannot play football in the street (i. e. you have no right).

Can expressing possibility is used with the Indefinite Infinitive only.

(c)due to permission:

Can and cannot (can't) are the most common words used for asking, giving or refusing permission.

Can I borrow your calculator?

You can come with us if you want to.

You can't park your car here.

May (may not) is a more polite and formal way of asking for or giving permission (§ 3).

Can is also used when we offer to do things.

Can I get you a cup of coffee?

Can I help you, madam?

Note. (1) Could is often used in polite requests.

Could you give us a consultation tomorrow, please?

(2) Could is used to refer to the possibility of some future actions, especially when suggestions are being made.

When you go to London, you could stay with Pat.

In these cases could is not the past form of can and does not refer to the past.

3. Incredulity, doubt, astonishment (they are closely con­nected).

In these meanings can is used with all the forms of the Infinitive in interrogative and negative sentences, though astonishment is expressed only in interrogative sentences.

No wonder her father had hidden that photograph... But could he hate Jon's mother and yet keep her photograph? (Galswor­thy) — He удивительно, что ее отец спрятал эту фотографию... Но неужели он мог ненавидеть мать Джона и все-таки хранить ее фотографию?

"That is not true!" exclaimed Linton, rising in agitation. "It cannot be; it is incredible, it cannot be." (E. Brontд) — «Это неправ­да, — воскликнул Линтон, вскакивая в волнении. — Не может этого быть, это невероятно, не может этого быть». Can she be waiting for us? — Может ли быть, что она нас ждет?

Can (could) she have said that? — Да неужели она это ска­зала?

"Oh!" cried Fleur. "You could not have done it." (Galswor­thy) — «О, — вскричала Флер, — не может быть, чтобы вы это сделали».

Can she have been waiting for us all the time? — Может ли быть, что она нас все это время ждет?

She cannot have been waiting for us all the time. — He может быть, что она нас все это время ждет.

Note. The Russian negative-interrogative sentences of the type 'Не­ужели она не читала эту книгу?' are rendered in English by complex sentences:

Can it be that she has not read this book?

4. Could (couldn’t) with the Perfect Infinitive is used to refer to the fact that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past, which was not realized.

We did not go out last night. We could have gone to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. (We had the opportunity to go out but we didn't.)

The football match was cancelled last week. Jack couldn't have played anyway because he was ill.

§ 3. May.

The verb may has two forms: may for the Present Tense and might for the Past Tense. The expressions to be allowed and to be permitted, which have the same meaning, can be used to supply the missing forms of the verb may.

"May I come along?" asked Karen. (Heym)

Jolyon thought he might not have the chance of saying it after. (Galsworthy)

You are to stay in bed until you are allowed to get up. (Du Maurier)

May expresses permission, uncertainty, possibility, reproach.

1. Permission.

"May I use your phone?" (Heym)

At any rate she murmured something to the effect that he might stay if he wished. (Hardy)

As has been mentioned (see § 2), may is used as a polite and fairly formal way to ask for or give permission. It is often used in official signs and rules:

Visitors may use the swimming pool between 7 a.m. and 7p.m.

Students may not use the college car park.

May expressing permission is used only with the Indefinite Infini­tive. Here we must observe the difference in the expression of permission and prohibition.

Whereas the former is always expressed by may, the latter has other ways of expression besides may not. Very often the negative answer to the question containing a request for permission is don’t or must not.

May I read the letter?

No, don't, please.

Don’t is less strict than may not, it is rather asking somebody not to do something than actually prohibiting something, which is expressed by maу not.{The form mayn't is almost never used in Modern English.)

Must not means that it is not the person who prohibits the action, but that there are facts, rules, or circumstances prohibiting it.

You must not smoke so much.

(For the difference between can and may in this meaning see §2.2.)

2. Uncertainty as to the fulfilment of an action, state or occurrence, supposition implying doubt, possibility of an action.

"You may think you're very old," he said, "but you strike me as extremely young." (Galsworthy) — «Может быть, вы думаете, что вы очень старая, — сказал он, — но мне вы кажетесь совсем молодой».

She was and remains a riddle to me. She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to you. (Dreiser) — Она была и остается загадкой для меня. Может быть, она окажется загадкой и для вас, а может быть, и нет.

I'm not sure where to go for my holidays but I may go to Spain.

Not which follows may expressing uncertainty is always strongly stressed.

As is seen from the above examples this meaning of may is rendered in Russian by может быть, возможно.

Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away, and you feel lonely, you might like to come up to these rooms and sit here. (Du Mau- rier) — Иногда, когда мистер де Винтер уедет и вы почувс­твуете себя одинокой, вам, может быть, захочется прийти посидеть в этих комнатах.

The last example shows that might denoting uncertainty has no temporal meaning, i. e. it does not express uncertainty referring to the past. Sometimes might expresses greater reserve or uncertainty on the part of the speaker than may, but as a rule there is no important differ­ence between may and might in this meaning.

Might instead of may is often used because of the sequence of tenses.

That was like her — she had no foresight. Still — who knew? — she might be right. (Galsworthy) — Это похоже на нее — она не умела смотреть вперед. Все же — кто знает? — может быть, она и права.

Mrs. Page reflected that though Andrew looked hungry he might not be hard to feed. (Cronin) — Миссис Пейдж подумала, что хотя у Эндрю голодный вид, его, может быть, и не трудно будет прокормить.

May and might denoting uncertainty are used with all the forms of the infinitive.

A Forsyte might perhaps still be living in that house, to guard it jealously. (Galsworthy)

It was then that his voice grew tired and his speech impeded. The knowledge that he had entirely lost touch with his audience may have been the cause. (Greene) — Именно тогда в голосе его послышалось утомление и речь его стала прерывистой. Быть может, мысль, что он совершенно потерял контакт с аудиторией, была этому причиной.

How long the silence lasted the Gadfly could not tell; it might

have been an instant, or an eternity (Voynich)

For all I knew, she may have been waiting for hours.

When uncertainty is expressed the time of the action is indicated by the form of the infinitive and not by the form of the modal verb, as both may and might can refer to the present or to the past in accordance with the form of the infinitive. If the action refers to the past, the Perfect Infinitive is used.

Why didn't he say hello when he passed us in the street?

He might have been day-dreaming.

It is possible to use could instead of may or might in such cases, but with could the possibility looks smaller.

3.Possibility due to circumstances.

May is used in this sense only in affirmative sentences. Can is also possible in this meaning.

In this museum you may see some interesting things.

You may see him every morning walking with his dog.

In this meaning it is generally used with the Indefinite Infinitive.


Only might is used in this meaning but not may.

You might lend me a razor. I was shaved this morning with a sort of bill-hook. (Galsworthy)

When might is used with the Indefinite Infinitive it is rather a request niade in the tone of a reproach, as the above example shows. When it is used with the Perfect Infinitive, it expresses reproach.

I realize now how you spent your days and why you were so forgetful. Tennis lesson, my eye. You might have told me, you know. (Du Maurier)

§ 4. Must.

The verb must has only one form. The expressions to have to and to be obliged to, which have the same meaning, can be used to supply the missing tense forms of the verb must.

And now I must go back to my social duties. (Voynich)

I felt that I had to have the air. (De la Roche)

Baring, because of the type of work in which he was engaged, had been obliged to forego making friends. (Wilson)

Must expresses obligation, necessity, an urgent command or pro­hibition, and a supposition bordering on assurance.

1.Obligation, necessity.

(a)due to circumstances (in this meaning it is equivalent to have to and is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive in affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences):

He must write. He must earn money. (London)

This education is indispensable for whatever career you select, and it must not be slipshod or sketchy. (London)

The absence of necessity is expressed by need not:

Must I go there tomorrow?

Yes, you must. No, you needn't.

(b)arising out of the nature of man and consequently inevitable:

All experience tended to show that man must die. (Galsworthy)

9. A command, an urgent (emphatic) request or a prohibition. In this meaning it is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.

You must leave the room at once!

You must come to see me every vacation. (Voynich)

You must not speak to a prisoner in a foreign language, madam. (Voynich)

The negative forms must not (mustn’t 7) and don't have to are com­pletely different in their meanings. The former means that it is necessary not to do something, while the latter means that there is no necessity to do something.

You mustn't tell anyone what I said.

I don't have to wear a suit to work but I usually do.

3. Probability or supposition.

Supposition bordering on assurance, almost a conviction. In this meaning must is used with all the forms of the Infinitive in affirmative sentences only. It corresponds to the Russian должно быть. If the ac­tion refers to the present the Indefinite Infinitive is used; if the action refers to the past the Perfect Infinitive is used.

Surely, they don't want me for myself. Then they must want me for something else. (London) — Безусловно, я не нужен им сам по себе. Тогда я, должно быть, нужен им для чего-то другого.

Oh, Мае, think how he must be suffering! Poor man! (Web­ster) — О, Мэй, подумай только, как он, должно быть, страдает (как он должен страдать)! Бедняга!

What a comfort you must have been to your blessed mother. (Dickens) — Каким утешением ты, должно быть, была для твоей дорогой матушки.

Is she still waiting? She must have been waiting for an hour. — Она все ждет? Должно быть, она ждет уже целый час.

The negation of supposition is achieved by the use of can't.

They must be telling lies.— They can't be telling lies.

A less emphatic negation of must in this meaning may be achieved with needn't ov don't have to (especially American English).

It must be hot now in Florida.

It needn't be hot in Florida now.

It doesn't have to be hot in Florida now.

In negative sentences supposition is also expressed by means of the modal word evidently.

Evidently, she did not know my address.

Supposition referring to the future cannot be expressed by must. The modal word probably or the modal expression to be likely are to be used instead.

She is not likely to come so late.

She will probably come tomorrow.

Note. Must has a sarcastic use in some utterances.

Why must you always be finding fault with Sally?

(For the use of must in subordinate clauses after the past tense of the verb in the principal clause see Chapter XIX, Indirect Speech, § 2.8.)

§ 5. Should[1] and ought.

The modal verbs should and ought are treated together here as there is hardly any difference between them. Very often they are in­terchangeable.

I ought to have married; yes, I should have married long ago. (Poutsma)

There is, however, a difference in construction. Whereas should is followed by the infinitive without the particle to, ought is always followed by the to-infinitive.

Should and ought are used with the Indefinite Infinitive, the Con­tinuous Infinitive and the Perfect Continuous Infinitive.

The government should do something about the economy.

You should be learning your lessons, Jack, and not talking with Mary.

You ought to be helping your mother with your salary and not squandering your money.

He should have been trying to break through the isolation the hospital had set around Thorpe, he should have been doing many things other than walking along the Seine quay (Heym)

When reference is made to the present or future, the Indefinite Infinitive is used.

In wartime a man should not part with his rifle. (Heym)

It's murder, and we ought to stop it. (London)

When reference is made to the moment of speaking or some other given moment, the Continuous Infinitive is used. The implication is that the advisable action is not being carried out.

I should be gardening in this warm weather. (But I'm not)

When reference is made to the past the Perfect Infinitive shows that the obligation was not carried out, that something was done in the wrong way.

"You should have been here last night when they brought back the DP's to the mines," said Yates. (Heym).

She ought to have known that the whole subject was too dan­gerous to discuss at night. (Galsworthy)

I know that I was weak in yielding to my mother's will. I should not have done so. (London)

She had no nerves; he ought never to have married a woman eighteen years younger than himself. (Galsworthy)

Note. The Past Indefinite Passive of the verb to suppose (was/were sup­posed to) means much the same as should or ought used with the Perfect Infinitive.

The policeman was supposed to make a report about the bur­glary. (He did not make the report.)

You should be more careful. (London) — Вам следует быть осторожнее.

You ought to have Warmson to sleep in the house. (Galswor­thy) — Нужно было бы, чтобы Уормсон спал у вас в доме.

3. Something which can be naturally expected.

It's the last of the Madeira I had from Mr. Jolyon... it ought to be in prime-condition still. (Galsworthy) — Это последняя бутыл­ка мадеры, которую я получил от мистера Джолиона... она должна быть еще в отличном состоянии. If it's a story by Wodehouse it should be amusing. — Если это рассказ Вудхауса, он должен быть забавным.

In more general cases of this usage should and ought express prob­ability.

Do you think you'll be late home tonight? I don't think so.

I should be home at the usual time.

She's been studying very hard, so she ought to pass her test.

§ 6.To be + Infinitive.

To be + Infinitive is a modal expression. Some of its meanings are close to those of modal verbs and expressions denoting obligation must, shall, should, ought, to have + Infinitive).

This modal expression can be used in two tenses — the Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite (was, were).

Dear Jim, I am to be shot at sunrise tomorrow. (Voynich)

They were to go to Spain for the honeymoon. (Galsworthy)

To be + Infinitive expresses a weakened order, an arrangement, possibility, something thought of as unavoidable. The ways of rendering this expression in Russian differ in accordance with its meaning.

1. An order which is generally the result of an arrangement made by one person for another, an arrangement which is not to be discussed. In this case only the Indefinite Infinitive is used.

You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of this to anyone. (De la Roche) — Ты должна идти прямо в свою комнату. Ты никому не должна ничего говорить об этом. Schlaghammer frowned. It was not up to him to judge Pettinger. but it was in his province to interpret orders. He was to blast the entrances of the mine. (Heym) — Шлагхаммер нахмурился

He ему судить Петтингера, но толковать приказы — это его право. Он должен взорвать все входы в шахту.

2.An arrangement, or agreement, part of a plan.

In this meaning both the Indefinite and the Perfect Infinitive can be used; the Perfect Infinitive shows that the action was not carried out.

I'm sorry, Major, we had an agreement — I was to do the ques­tioning here. (Heym) — Простите, майор, мы условились, что допрос буду вести я.

"Have you seen him?" Martini asked. "No, he was to have met me here the next morning." (Voynich) — «Вы его видели?» — спросил Мартини. «Нет, он должен был встретить меня здесь на следующее утро».


In this meaning the passive form of the Infinitive is used unless it is a question beginning with the interrogative adverb how. Here the meaning of the modal expression comes very close to that of the verb can.

How are they to know that you are well connected if you do not show it by your costume? (Shaw) — Как могут они знать, что у вас большие связи, если вы не показываете этого своей манерой одеваться?

And he knew that higher intellects than those of the Morse circle were to be found in the world. (London) — И он знал, что можно найти людей с более высоким интеллектом, чем у тех, кото­рые принадлежали к кругу Морзов.

4.Something thought of as unavoidable.

Sally wished Morris could be on the same terms of easy friendliness with her as he was with everybody else. But evidently, it was not to be. (Prichard) — Салли хотела, чтобы Моррис поддерживал с ней такие же простые дружеские отношения, как и со всеми остальными. Но, очевидно, этому не суждено было быть. I went about brooding over my lot, wondering almost hourly what was to become of me. (Dreiser) — Я все время размышлял о своей судьбе, беспрестанно задавая себе вопрос, что со мной станет.

Note 1. Sometimes when it is used after the conjunction if it has the same meaning as the verb to want.

If we are to remain friends you must tell me the truth.

N о t e 2. It should be borne in mind that the Russian questions 'Как мне быть?\ 'Что мне делать?' are rendered in English by the modal expression What am I to do ?


§ 7. To have + Infinitive.

The modal expression to have + Infinitive is used in three tense forms: the Present Indefinite, the Past Indefinite and the Future In­definite.

Ihave to get up at six every day

When water was rushing through the tents and everybodyhad to sleep in wet blankets, it was treated as a joke. (Prichard)

Ishall have to take the pupils into the hills, as usual, and see them settled there. (Voynich)

The negative and interrogative forms of this modal expression are formed with the help of the auxiliary do.

Did youhave to walk all the way home?

Idid not have to walk, I took a tram.

Only the Indefinite Infinitive Active and Passive can be used in this modal expression.

I had imagined weshould have to hold a large house-party for the occasion. (Du Maurier)

I wouldn't look through the letters — disappointmenthad to be postponed, hope kept alive as long as possible. (Greene)

To have + Infinitive expresses an obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. To have + Infinitive is more impersonal than must and tends to lack the implication that the speaker is in authority. Its meaningis close to that of to be obliged. Itis often rendered inRussianby приходится, должен, вынужден.

Bing knew that if Willoughby demanded it, hehad to give the report. (Heym) — Бинг знал, что, если Уиллоуби этого требует, он должен дать отчет

And if my father was fighting drunk sometimes he wouldn't let us into the house so that wehad to stay out all night- (Walsh) — И если мой отец в пьяном виде дрался, он иногда не впускал нас в дом, так что нам приходилось ночевать на улице.

Though both the modal expressions to be + Infinitive and to have + Infinitive express a shade of obligation or necessity, there is a great dif­ference in their meaning.


As I was to be there at 5 sharp (part of an arrangement), I had to take a taxi (necessity arising out of this arrangement). — Так как я должен был быть там ровно в пять, мне пришлось взять такси.

In colloquial English and especially in American English have got + Infinitive is often used in the same meaning as have + Infinitive.

This modal expression is used in the Present Indefinite tense only.

Okay, we'll beat 'em to it. Dick, we've got to keep awake, we've got to watch things and be ready. (Lindsay)

The negative and interrogative forms are formed without any auxiliary.

Have you got to do all this work yourself?

No, I have not got to work so much.

There is a tendency in Modern English to use got + Infinitive in the same meaning.

You can smile away till you split your cheeks, but you still got to do a day's work to earn a day's wages, and apples don't grow on monkey-trees. (Lindsay)

N o t e l. Have to and have got to are used in sarcastic utterances like those illustrated for must (§ 4).

Do you have to make that noise when you eat?

N o t e 2. Pay special attention to the difference between I have something to tell you and I have to tell you something. In the latter case the speaker expresses the necessity of telling something to somebody, whereas in the former the verb to have preserves to a certain extent its meaning of posses­sion and the speaker merely states that he has something which he either wants or must communicate to somebody. The difference in word order is caused by the difference in the meaning of the verb to have. In the first case it is not a modal verb, thus, have is a simple predicate, something is a direct object and the infinitive is an attribute. In the second sentence have to tell is a modal expression, so it is a compound verbal modal predicate and something is an object to the infinitive.


§ 8. Shall

Shall is never a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning with the function of an auxiliary expressing futurity.

As a rule shall as a modal verb is not translated into Russian, its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.

1.Shall expresses volition with the first person subject in formal style.

We shall uphold the wishes of the people. — Мы поддержим желания народа.

2.In interrogative sentences shall is used with the first and third persons to inquire after the wish of the person addressed.

Shall I shut the door, madam? (Dickens) (Do you want me to shut the door?) — Закрыть дверь, сударыня?

Shall he go there? (Do you want him to go there?) — Идти ему туда?

It is also used for making suggestions about shared activities.

What shall we do this evening? Shall we go to the theatre?

N o t e. It is only in such questions that shall cannot be regularly replaced by will.


3.Compulsion or strict order.

In this meaning it is always used with the second and third persons and has a strong stress.

P a u I a. I've got to tell Mr. Tanqueray.

H u g h. By God, youshall do nothing of the sort. (Pinero)

П а у л а. Я должна сказать мистеру Тэнкери.

Хью. Клянусь богом, вы этого не сделаете.

"Sheshall go off tomorrow, the little artful creature," said Mrs

Sedley, with great energy. (Thackeray) — «Она уедет завтра же

эта маленькая интриганка», — энергично заявила миссис

Се дли.


4.Threat or warning.

In this meaning it is also used with the second and third persons and with a weak stress.

"That's the last time!" she cried. "You shall never see me again!" (Maugham) — «Это конец! — закричала она. — Вы никогда меня больше не увидите!»

You shall repent of this neglect of duty, Mr. Gummer. (Dick­ens) — Вы еще раскаетесь в том, что пренебрегаете долгом, мистер Гаммер.


It is also used with the second and third persons and with a weak stress.

Don't be afraid, Jane, I saw it was an accident. You shall not be punished. (Ch. Bronte) — He бойся, Джейн, я видела, что это произошло случайно. Тебя не накажут. I shall make you happy, see if I don't. You shall do what you like, spend what you like. (Thackeray) — Я сделаю вас счастливой, вот увидите. Вы будете делать что хотите и тратить сколько хотите.

In the latter three cases shall sounds archaic and 'authoritarian' in tone.

6.A restricted use of shall with the third person occurs in legal or quasi-legal discourse, in stipulating regulations or legal requirements. Here shall is close in meaning to must.

The vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair. — Про­давцу надлежит поддерживать оборудование в хорошем состоянии.

§ 9. Will.

Will is hardly ever a purely modal verb. It generally combines its fiiodal meaning with the function of an auxiliary expressing futurity.

The modal verb will expresses volition, intention on the part of the sPeaker, or insistence. 1. Volition, intention.

In most eases this meaning is rendered in Russian by emphatic 'donation, but sometimes the verb хотеть is used. It is used with all Arsons but mostly with the first person.

"What is this? Who is this? Turn this man out. Clear the office!" cried Mr. Fang. "I will speak," cried the man. "I will not be turned out..." (Dickens) — «Что это? Кто это? Выставьте этого чело- века за дверь! Очистите помещение!» — закричал мистер Фанг. «Нет, я буду говорить! — крикнул человек. — Меня не выставят!»

Besides, since happiness is irrevocably denied me, I have a right to get pleasure out of life: and I will get it, cost what it may (E. Bront§) — Кроме того, раз счастье для меня невозможно я вправе получать от жизни удовольствия; и я буду получать их, чего бы это ни стоило.

Tell Mr. Osborne it is a cowardly letter, sir, a cowardly letter —I will not answer it. (Thackeray) — Скажите мистеру Осборну, что это трусливое письмо, сэр, трусливое; я на него не отвечу.

Very often will is used after the conjunction if in conditional clauses where it retains its modal meaning, that of volition.

You may laugh if you will but I was sure I should see her there. (E. Bronte) — Можете смеяться, если хотите, но я был уверен, что встречу ее там.

The modal verb will is used in polite requests. Will you have a cup of tea?

Will you give me a piece of bread, for I am very hungry? (Ch. ВгоМё)

2. Persistence referring to the present or to the future.

"Don't tell me." "But I will tell you," repeated Sikes. (Dickens) - «Не говорите мне про это». «А я все равно скажу», — повторил Сайке.

She begins to act very strangely. She will not speak, she will not eat; finally she dies. (Maugham) — Она начинает вести себя очень странно. Она не желает говорить, она не желает есть, наконец, она умирает.

It is used in speaking about habits.

She will listen to music, alone in her room, for hours.

It is also used in speaking about lifeless things when the speaker is annoyed at something and speaks about a thing or a phenomenon of nature as if it possessed a will of its own (there is an element of per­sonification here).

It's no use trying to open the door, it will not open. — Нечего стараться открыть эту дверь — она все равно не откроется.

3. Prediction referring to the present or to no particular time (in timeless statements).

That'll be the postman (on hearing the doorbell ring). Oil will float on water.

§ 10. Would.

Would was originally the past tense of will in the same way as should was the past tense of shall. But while the latter has acquired new shades of meaning, would has preserved those of will. Thus it expresses volition, persistence referring to the past.


In this meaning it is mostly used in negative sentences.

She was going away and would not say where she was going. (Dreiser) — Она уезжала и не хотела сказать, куда едет.


I asked him not to bang the door, but he would do it. — Я просил его на хлопать дверью, а он все продолжал хлопать. Several times Eckerman tried to get away, but Goethe would not let him go. (Maugham) — Несколько раз Эккерман пытался уйти, но Гёте ни за что не отпускал его.

Would is used to describe things that often happened in the past. It is very close to used to in these cases, but it is more formal and needs to be associated with a time indicator.

When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer, if the weather was fine, we would all get up early and go for a swim.

It is also used in speaking about lifeless things in the same way as (see § 9), but in this use would is more common than will.

... and that was all he could see, for the sedan doors wouldn't open and the blinds wouldn't pull up. (Dickens) — ... и это бы­ло все, что ему было видно, ибо двери портшеза никак не открывались и занавеси никак не поднимались.

Would you open the door for me, please?

Would you like to have a sandwich?

It is more polite than will in this meaning.

§11. Dare.

Dare means 4o have the courage (or impertinence) to do some­thing'. In the negative it denotes the lack of courage to do something.

"How dare you ask the little Kelveys into the courtyard," said her cold, furious voice. (Mansfield)

The verb dare as well as need has some peculiarities which make it different from other modal verbs.

It is used both as a normal verb (taking the auxiliary do in the in­terrogative and negative forms, in the third person singular and the Го-Infinitive) and as an anomalous verb (without any auxiliary in its interrogative and negative forms, without in the third person singular and without the particle to before the infinitive which follows it). Dare has two forms — dare for the Present and dared for the Past.

Did he dare to strike me when I was down? (E. Bronte)

He did not dare to meethis uncle. (Kruisinga)

How dare you go out by yourself after the orders I gave you?(Shaw)

You dare address me in that tone! (Shaw)

Sometimes dare takes the auxiliary but is followed by the bare infinitive. This is more typical of spoken English.

You know you didn't dare give the order to charge the bridge until you saw us on the other side. (Shaw)

Dare is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences. How­ever, we often come across I dare say which has become a stock phrase and acquired a new meaning “I suppose'. Dare is used only with the Indefinite Infinitive.


§ 12. Need.

Need expresses necessity. It is mostly used in negative and inter­rogative sentences.

You needn't be in such a fright. Take my arm. (Shaw) — He надо так бояться. Возьмите меня под руку.

Note. When need is used in the meaning of'to be in want of it is treated as a normal verb.

He needs a new pair of shoes.

Need has only one tense form — the Present. In the same way as dare, need is used as a normal and as an anomalous verb.

One need to be careful.(Zandvoort)

He did not need to be toldtwice. (Zandvoort)

Why need he bother us? (Kruisinga)

I am here. You needn't be afraid. (Greene)

I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure

Gwendolen's happiness. (Wilde)

Need is used both with the Indefinite and with the Perfect Infini­tive.

I suppose I needn't have made that observation. (Pinero) — По­жалуй, не к чему мне было делать такое замечание.

In American English need is used only as a normal verb. It is more common for need to be used to speak about what is necessary, rather than about what you must do. The difference is especially noticeable in the past tenses.

В r E: He needn't have gone to hospital, but he went just to reassure himself. (= he did something that wasn't neces­sary)

A m E: He didn't need to go to hospital, but he went just to reas­sure himself. (= he did something that wasn't necessary) В r E: He didn't need to go to hospital after all — he had only a few bruises. (= he didn't go)




Mood is a grammatical category which indicates the attitude of fhe speaker towards the action expressed by the verb from the point of yiew of its reality.

In Modern English we distinguish three moods:

(1) The Indicative Mood.

(2) The Imperative Mood.

(3) The Subjunctive Mood.

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