Студопедия

Главная страница Случайная страница

КАТЕГОРИИ:

АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника






II. COMPLEX SENTENCES




§ 6. The Subjunctive Mood is used in conditional sentences to express an unreal condition (in the subordinate clause) and an unreal conse­quence (in the principal clause).

In sentences of unreal condition referring to the present or fu­ture the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used in the subordinate clause; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood. In the principal clause we find the analytical subjunctive consisting of the mood auxiliary would and the Indefinite Infinitive. Nowadays there is a tendency to use would for all the persons. But in British English sometimes the difference between should as used with the first person singular and plural and would as used with the second and third persons singular and plural is maintained.

The world would be healthier if every chemist's shop in England were demolished. (Shaw) — Человечество было бы здоровее, если бы все аптеки в Англии были уничтожены. I should kill myself today if I didn't believe that tyranny and injustice must end. (Galsworthy) — Я бы сегодня же покончила с собой, если бы не верила, что тирании и несправедливости придет конец.

If you helped me, I would finish the work shortly.

An unreal condition referring to the future can also be expressed by the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be + Infinitive of the notional verb or the analytical Subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should for all the persons. Such sentences are often translated by means of'Если бы случилось так...\ 'Случись так...'.

If I were to offer my home..., my station..., my affections... to any one among the young women engaged in my calling, they would probably be accepted. Even readily accepted. (Dickens) — Если бы случилось так, что я предложил бы свой дом, свое поло­жение в обществе, свою любовь любой молодой женщине моей профессии, все это, вероятно, было бы принято. Даже охотно принято.

Well, Major, if you should send me to a difficult spot — with this man alone, I'd feel secure. (Heym) — Знаете, майор, если бы случилось так, что вы послали бы меня в опасное место только с одним этим человеком, я бы чувствовал себя в безопасности.

If in the subordinate clause the mood auxiliary should is used, we often find the Indicative or Imperative Mood in the principal clause.

If any of your family should come to my house, I shall be de­lighted to welcome them... (Trollope) — Если кому-нибудь из членов вашей семьи случится прийти в мой дом, я буду рад принять его.

If he should come, ask him to wait. — В случае, если он придет, попросите его подождать.

In sentences of unreal condition referring to the past the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used in the subordinate clause; in the prin­cipal clause we find the analytical subjunctive consisting of the mood auxiliary would and the Perfect Infinitive. Similar to the sentences of unreal condition referring to the present and future, would is normally used for all the persons nowadays.



If I had been at home last night, I would have heard the noise. If I had consulted my own interests, I should never have come here. (Galsworthy) — Если бы я думал только о себе, я бы никогда сюда не пришел.

There are two mixed types of sentences of unreal condition. In the first of these the condition refers to the past and the consequence refers to the present or future.

If you had taken your medicine yesterday, you would be well now. — Если бы вы вчера приняли лекарство, теперь вы были бы здоровы.

No, by my word and truth, I never despised you; if I had I should not love you now! (Hardy) — Нет, клянусь вам, я вас никогда не презирал; если бы я вас когда-нибудь презирал, я не любил бы вас теперь.

In the second type the condition refers to no particular time and the consequence to the past.

If he were not so absent-minded, he would not have mistaken you for your sister. — Если бы он не был такой рассеянный, он не принял бы вас за вашу сестру.

Still Beatrice had taken the trouble to go up to London and to buy the books for me. She would not have done that if she disliked me. (Du Maurier) — Все-таки Беатриса взяла на себя труд съездить в Лондон и купить мне эти книги. Она бы этого не сделала, если бы не любила меня.



Note. Unreal conditions may also be expressed in the following ways:

(a) But for the rain, we should go down to the country. — Если бы не дождь, мы бы поехали за город. His fleshless face would have looked like the face of a mummy, but for the restless brightness of his little black eyes. (Collins) — Его изможденное лицо было бы похоже на лицо мумии, если бы не беспокойный блеск маленьких черных глаз.

(b) If it were not for your help, I should not be able to finish my work in time. — Если бы не ваша помощь, я не смог бы вовремя закончить работу.

If it hadn't been for me, his own brother would have shut him up for life. (Dickens) — Если бы не я, его собственный брат засадил бы его (в сумасшедший дом) на всю жизнь.

In sentences of unreal condition the modal verbs might and could are often used; they fully retain their modal meaning and therefore they do not form the analytical subjunctive.

Here we have the group 'modal verb + Infinitive' which forms a compound verbal modal predicate, whereas the analytical subjunctive forms a simple predicate.

If she were still waiting, she might be restless, feverish, but surely she would not look like this. (Galsworthy) — Если бы она все еще ждала, она, возможно, нервничала бы, но, безусловно, она не выглядела бы так.

I could have done very well if I had been without the Murd- stones. (Dickens) — Я мог бы очень хорошо учиться, если бы не Мердстоны.

Would, when used in the subordinate clause of a sentence of unreal condition, is also a modal verb forming with the infinitive a compound verbal modal predicate.

If you would come and see us..., mother would be as proud of your company as I should be. (Dickens) — Если бы вы пожела­ли навестить нас..., моя матушка была бы так же польщена этим, как и я.

N o t e. In conditional scntcnccs of real condition naturally the Indicative and not the Subjunctive Mood is used. Such sentences can refer to the present, future or past.

But I can bear anything gladly if you are happy. (Eliot)

If you make this disgusting match, you will never see Hector

again. (Shaw)

The whole thing was on his conscience — for if Jon had anything, he had a conscience. (Galsworthy)

The conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses of condition are: if, in case, provided, suppose, unless and some others, /f is the most common conjunction used in sentences of real and unreal condition.

In case and provided are chiefly used in sentences of real condi- tion.

In case I don't find her at home, I'll leave her a note. — В случае, если я не застану ее дома, я оставлю ей записку I shall go there provided you consent to accompany me. (Ch. ВгоМё) — Я пойду туда при условии, что вы согласитесь пойти со мной.

Suppose is more common in sentences of unreal condition.

Suppose he wrote to you, would you answer? — Предположим, он написал бы вам, вы бы ответили?

Unless is used in sentences of real and unreal condition.

I'll come in time unless I am detained at the University — Я приду вовремя, если меня не задержат в университете. Isabel would not have engaged herself to Mr. Hardyman unless she had been fond of him. (Collins) — Изабелла не согласилась бы выйти за мистера Хардимена, если бы не любила его.

Note.Unless has a negative meaning; it corresponds to the Russianесли не. There are cases, however, when the Russianесли не cannot be rendered in English byunless; onlyif not is possible.

Осторожно переходите улицу, если не хотите попасть под машину — Cross the street carefully if you don't want to be run over.

In this sentenceunless would sound ironically (разве что тебе захочется попасть под машину).

Adverbial clauses of condition containing the verbs had, were, could and should are often introduced without any conjunction. In these cases we find inversion.

Had the wanderer remained awake for another half-hour, a strange sight would have met his eyes. (Conan Doyle) — Если бы путешественник продолжал бодрствовать еще в течение получаса, его глазам представилось бы странное зрелище. I should be myself were I once again among the heather in those hills. (E. Bronte) — Я стала бы такой, как прежде, если бы вновь очутилась на этих холмах, поросших вереском.

Mary would indeed have been grateful to Miss Dunstable, could she have known all that lady did for her. (Trollope) — Мэри и в самом деле была бы очень благодарна мисс Данстэбл, если бы она могла знать все, что эта дама для нее сделала. Should he come this way, I will speak to him. (Ch. Bronte) — Если ему случится быть здесь, я поговорю с ним.

The Subjunctive Mood is used in sentences expressing what may be understood as an unreal consequence, the condition of which is not expressed as such.

I suppose you are a stranger in these parts, or you would have heard what happened last autumn. (Ch. Bronte) — Наверно, вы приезжая, иначе вы бы знали о том, что случилось здесь осенью.

There was no piano... because it would have taken up much room. (Galsworthy) — Рояля не было..., так как он занял бы много места.

§ 7. The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of purpose. When a clause of purpose is introduced by the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, we find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) if the principal clause refers to the present or future; if the principal clause refers to the past, only the form might is used.

As has already been, stated (see § 3), the mood auxiliary may (might) retains in this case a shade of modality.

She opens (will open) the window that she may (might) get a breath of fresh air.

She opened the window that she might get a breath of fresh air.

Order a conveyance to be at the door to-morrow evening, rather earlier than is absolutely necessary, in order that we may be in good time. (Dickens) — Прикажите подать экипаж завтра вече­ром пораньше, чтобы мы приехали заблаговременно (чтобы мы могли приехать заблаговременно). Mr. Micawber impressed the names of streets upon me that I might find my way back easily. (Dickens) — Мистер Микобер заставил меня запомнить названия улиц, чтобы я легко нашел дорогу обратно (чтобы я мог легко найти дорогу обратно). Не got up, cautiously, so that he might not wake the sleeping boy. (Cronin) — Он тихо поднялся, чтобы не разбудить спя­щего мальчика.

If a clause of purpose is introduced by lest the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is generally used. The synthetic form of the Subjunctive Mood is also possible. Zesf has a negative meaning (что- бы не).

She opens (opened, will open) the window lest it should be stuffy in the room.

The President must reject this proposal lest it should cause (cause) strife and violence.

In British English lest is restricted to very formal usage, but in American English it is more current.

§ 8. The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of concession. Adverbial clauses of concession are introduced by the conjunctions and connectives though, although, however; no matter; whatever; whoever; etc. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary may (might) is generally used.

Though he may (might) be tired

Tired though he may (might) be } he will go to the concert.

No matter how tired he may (might) be

However tired he may (might) be

 

Как бы он ни был утомлен, он пойдет на концерт.

Whatever obstacles may arise, we shall not give in. — Какие бы препятствия ни встали на нашем пути, они нас не оста­новят.

You're my daughter, Alice. Although you may never admit it, you're like me. (Gowand D'Usseau) — Ты моя дочь, Алиса. Хотя бы ты с этим и не соглашалась, ты похожа на меня. Remember, the truth, however ashamed of it you may be, is bet­ter than any lie. (Dreiser) — Помните, что правда, как бы вы ни стыдились ее, лучше, чем любая ложь. I must return to the city, no matter what dangers may lurk there. (Dreiser) — Я должен вернуться в город, какие бы опасности ни поджидали меня там.

... I should like to do some good to you and your husband, who­ever he may be. (Hardy) — Я хотел бы быть полезным вам и вашему мужу, кто бы он ни был.

If the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Perfect Infinitive is generally used.

However badly he may have behaved to you in the past he is still your brother. (Wilde) — Как бы плохо он ни вел себя по отношению к вам в прошлом, он все же ваш брат.

Note. The Indicative Mood is used in adverbial clauses of concession when the action or state is considered as an actual fact and not as some­thing supposed.

Compare:

Cold though it may be, we shall go to the skating-rink. (Subjunc­tive Mood) — Как бы ни было холодно, мы пойдем на каток. Cold as it is, we shall go to the skating-rink. (Indicative Mood) — Как ни холодно, мы пойдем на каток.

§ 9. The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of time and place after the conjunctions whenever and wherever; in these cases the clauses have an additional concessive meaning.

Whenever you may (might) come, you are welcome. — Когда

бы вы ни пришли, мы вам всегда рады.

Wherever she may (might) live, she will always find friends. —

Где бы она ни жила, она всегда найдет друзей.

Of course, I shall come for your marriage, whenever that may be

fixed. (Trollope) — Конечно, я приеду на вашу свадьбу, когда

бы ее ни назначили.

§ 10. The Subjunctive Mood is used in adverbial clauses of comparison

(or manner) introduced by the conjunctions as if and as though (the latter is more literary).

If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

She speaks (spoke) about him as if she knew him well. — Она говорит (говорила) о нем так, как будто она его хорошо знает (знала).

She greeted him as if he were her brother. (Galsworthy) — Она поздоровалась с ним так, как будю ин был ее браiим. Не speaks as if he knew you! (Collins) — Он говорит так, как будто он вас знает!

Rex got from his seat, as if he held the conference to be at an end. (Eliot) — Рекс поднялся с места, как будто он считал совещание оконченным.

If the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used.

She speaks (spoke) about him as if she had known him for years. — Она говорит (говорила) о нем так, как будто знает (знала) его много лет.

She flushes as though he had struck her. (Shaw) — Она зали­вается краской, как будто он ее ударил. She shook hands with him as though they had known each other all their lives... (Trollope) — Они пожали друг другу руки, как будто были знакомы всю жизнь.

§11. The Subjunctive Mood is used in predicative clauses:

(a) introduced by the conjunctions as if as though, when we find the link verbs to be, to feel, to look, to seem, etc. in the principal clause.

If the action of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

If the action of the subordinate clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used.

I feel as if we were back seven years, Jon. (Galsworthy) — V меня такое чувство, как будто мы вернулись на семь лет назад, Джон.

... now I feel as if you had never been away (Shaw) — Теперь V

меня такое чувство, как будто вы и не уезжали.

Не looked as if he knew it to be true. (Austen) — У него был

такой вид, точно он знал, что это правда.

The house looked as though it had been deserted for weeks.

(Wells) — У дома был такой вид, точно в нем уже много недель

никто не жил.

It was as if she were angry with him. (Lawrence) — Похоже было, что она сердится на него.

Karel felt a bitter taste in his mouth. It was as if he had done something wrong. (Heym) — Карел почувствовал неприятный" вкус во рту. У него было такое чувство, точно он сделал что- то дурное.

(b) when the subject of the principal clause is expressed by an abstract noun such as wish, suggestion, aim, idea, etc. In this case the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used:

Mary's wish was that... our mother should come and live with her. (A. Bronte) — Мэри хотелось, чтобы наша мать переехала к ней жить.

One of the conditions was that I should go abroad. (Swinner- ton) — Одно из условий заключалось в том, чтобы я поехал за границу.

The synthetic subjunctive is used in American English and in some cases — in British English.

 

Our decision is that the school remain closed.

§ 12. The Subjunctive Mood is used in subject clauses after a principal clause of the type It is necessary, It is important, etc. The analytical sub­junctive with the mood auxiliary should for all persons or the synthetic subjunctive is used. The latter is more characteristic of American English than of British English, where it is formal in style. There are indications, however, that it is reestablishing itself in British English, probably as a result of American English influence.


It is (was) necessary

It is (was) important

It is (was) right

It is (was) requested

It is (was) recommended

It is (was) obligatory

It is (was) better (best)

It is (was) desirable

It is (was) of vital importance

 

 

}

 

 

that he should come (come)

 

 


It was necessary that the child's history should be known to none. (Trollope) — Надо было, чтобы историю этого ребенка никто не узнал.

It was desirable that she... should marry this earnest, well-to- do and respectable man. (Hardy) — Было желательно, чтобы она вышла замуж за этого серьезного, состоятельного и солидного человека.

It is better for these young men... that they should not remain here. (Dickens) — Для этих молодых людей... лучше, чтобы они не оставались здесь.

It was imperative that she should go home. (Hardy) — Было совершенно необходимо, чтобы она поехала домой. It was urgent that she leave at once. It was recommended that we wait for the authorities.

§13. The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses:

(a) When the predicate of the principal clause is expressed by the verb to wish. If the action expressed in the object clause is simultane­ous with that of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

I wish I were a girl again. (E. Bronte) — Я хотела бы быть снова девочкой.

She wished she were free and could follow them. (Ch. ВгоМё) - Она жалела, что не свободна и не может поехать с ними. I wish she felt as I do. (E. Bronte) — Я бы хотела, чтобы она чувствовала то же, что и я.

Не wished he had someone to talk to... (Wilson) — Он хотел, чтобы у него был кто-нибудь, с кем можно было бы поговорить.

 

If the action expressed in the object clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used.

Auntie, I wish I had not done it. (Twain) — Тетя, мне очень жаль, что, я это сделал.

The moment Aileen had said this she wished she had not. (Dreiser) — Как только Эйлин это сказала, она пожалела об этом.

The above examples show that such sentences are often translated by means of как жаль, мне жаль.

The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary would (for all per­sons) is also used in object clauses after the verb to wish. This form is used only in sentences referring to the present or future; it is possible only if the subject of the principal clause is not the same as the subject of the object clause. It is chiefly used in sentences expressing request or annoyance.

I wish you would stay with me for a while. (Voynich) — Я бы хотел, чтобы вы побыли немного со мной, i wish the honourable district attorney would mind his own bus: ness. (Dreiser) — Я бы хотел, чтобы почтенный адвокат не вмешивался в чужие дела.

With the verb to be this form is hardly ever used.

(b)The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses introduced by the conjunction lest if in the principal clause the predicate is expressed by a verb denoting fear.

The mood auxiliary should is used for all persons.

She fears (feared) lest she should be blamed. — Она боится (боялась), как бы ее не осудили.

Не trembled lest his secret should be discovered. — Он дрожал при мысли, что его тайна будет раскрыта. I dreaded lest any stranger should notice me and speak to me. (Eliot) — Я боялась, что какой-нибудь незнакомый человек заметит меня и заговорит со мной.

After verbs denoting fear object clauses are often introduced by the conjunction that, in which case the Indicative Mood is used, often with the modal verb may (might).

She fears (feared) that she will (would) be blamed.

She fears (feared) that she may (might) be blamed.

(c)The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses when we find verbs and word-groups denoting order, suggestion, advice, desire, etc. in the principal clause. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used.


He orders (ordered)

He suggests (suggested) He proposes (proposed)

He demands (demanded) He desires (desired)

He insists (insisted)

He is anxious (was anxious)

He will see (he saw) to it

 

 

}

 

 

That everything should be read by 5

 



Mrs. Linton insisted that Isabella should go to bed. (E. Bronte) — Миссис Линтон настаивала на том, чтобы Изабелла легла спать.

She (Agnes) proposed to my aunt that we should go upstairs and see my room. (Dickens) — Она предложила моей тетушке, чтобы мы пошли наверх и посмотрели мою комнату. Mr. Micawber was very anxious that I should stay to dinner. (Dickens) — Мистеру Микоберу очень хотелось, чтобы я ос­тался обедать.

In American English we find the Present Subjunctive in this case, whereas in British English constructions with the Present Subjunctive are formal in style.

... she insisted that they open a bottle of wine and toast his success. (Stone) — Она настаивала, чтобы они откупорили бутылку вина и выпили за его успех.

The people demand that the resignation be accepted. (Heym) - Народ требует, чтобы отставка была принята.

§14. The Subjunctive Mood is used in attributive appositive clauses

modifying the nouns wish, suggestion, aim, idea, etc. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) or the synthetic subjunctive is used.

His wish (suggestion) that everybody should take part in the work was reasonable.

She had been enormously flattered by his request that she should temporarily keep his house. (Bennett) — Она была чрезвычайно польщена его просьбой временно вести его хозяйство.

§ 15. The Subjunctive Mood is also used in attributive clauses modifying the noun time in the principal clause It is time, It is high time. In this case the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

It is time we went home. — Нам пора идти домой. It is high time we went home. — Нам давно пора идти до­мой.

It's time you learned you're in the army. (Heym) — Вам пора усвоить, что вы в армии.

Now then, children. It's high time you were washed and dressed. (Mansfield) — Ну, дети, давно пора умываться и одеваться.

The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should is also possible, though less common.

It is time we should go home. It was indeed high time that some one... should come to the aid of the old farmer and his adopted daughter. (Conan Doyle) — Уже давно было пора кому-нибудь прийти на помощь старому фермеру и его приемной дочери.

§ 16. As has already been stated the Subjunctive Mood may be used to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts (see § l). Here we always find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should, which in this case is often called the 'emotional should\ If priority is expressed the Perfect Infinitive is used.

In this case the Subjunctive Mood is rendered in Russian by the Indicative Mood.

The emotional should occurs in different kinds of subordinate clauses; the principal clause in such cases contains:

(a)An adjective expressing astonishment, incredulity, regret, joy, such as strange, wonderful, unnatural, impossible, fortunate, unfortunate, etc.

It is strange I should never have heard him even mention your name. (Austen) — Странно, что я никогда даже не слышала, чтобы он упоминал ваше имя.

It is impossible that she should have said it. — He может быть (невозможно), чтобы она это сказала (не могла она это ска­зать).

(b)A noun with the same meaning: wonder, pity, shame, etc.

He is such a charming man that it is quite a pity he should be so grave and so dull. (Austen) — Он такой чудесный человек; как жаль, что он такой серьезный и скучный.

(c)The principal clause may be of the following type: I am sorry, glad, pleased, vexed, etc.

I am sorry you should take such needless trouble. (Ch. Bronte) — Мне очень жаль, что вы берете на себя такие ненужные заботы.

Against my will I felt pleased that he should have considered my remark interesting... (Braine)— Невольно я обрадовался тому, что он нашел мое замечание интересным. I am so vexed... that such a thing should have been discussed before that child. (Reade) — Мне так досадно, что подобный вопрос обсуждался при ребенке.

I forgive you, but I am so grieved, Davy, that you should have such bad passions in your heart. (Dickens) — Я тебя прощаю, но я так огорчена, Дэви, что в твоем сердце гнездится столько

The Subjunctive Mood with the emotional should may also occur in such sentences as:

Why should you and I talk about it? (Dickens) — К чему нам с вами говорить об этом?

То think this should have come upon us in our old age! (Har­dy) — Подумать только, что на старости лет с нами случилось такое!

I was still busy, when who should come in but Caddy! (Dick­ens) — Я была еще занята, как вдруг вошла — кто бы вы думали? — Кэдди!

In sentences of this kind the Indicative Mood is also possible.

Oh! It is strange he never mentioned to me that he had a ward. (Wilde)

It is only wonderful we have seen no living creature there before. (Collins)

... to think that I have been so blind! (Dickens)

§17. Ways of rendering the Subjunctive Mood in Russian.

The Subjunctive Mood in English often corresponds to the same mood in Russian.

I wish you'd come oftener to see us. (Dreiser) — Я хотела бы, чтобы вы почаще заходили к нам.

I wonder sometimes, when I think of it, what they would have done, if I had been taken with an illness. (Dickens) — Я иногда думаю о том, как бы они поступили, если бы я заболел.

However, this is not the only way of rendering the Subjunctive Mood in Russian: it is often rendered by the Indicative Mood; sometimes the infinitive is used.

Barsiny received them as if he had known them for years. (Heym) — Барсини принял их так, как будто он знал их много лет.

In the first place, he showed him Mary's letter. "If your heart be not made of stone it will be softened by that," he said. (Trollope) — Пре­жде всего он показал ему письмо Мэри. «Если у вас сердце не каменное, это письмо тронет вас», — сказал он. I regret extremely Mr. Helstone should have thought it necessary to trouble you. (Ch. ВгоМё) — Я очень сожалею, что мистер Хелстоун счел необходимым побеспокоить вас. I proposed to Ada, that morning, that we should go and see Richard (Dickens) — Утром я преяпожипа Аде пойти навес­тить Ричарда.

And he again took her hand that he might encourage her. (Trol­lope) — И он опять взял ее за руку, чтобы подбодрить.

 

 


mylektsii.ru - Мои Лекции - 2015-2019 год. (0.035 сек.)Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав Пожаловаться на материал