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The structure of the Congress.




The constitution of the US grants all the legislative powers of the federal government to the Congress, which consists of two houses: the Senate and The House of Representatives.

1) The Senate is composed of two members from each state, as provided by the constitution. The 17th amendment provided for the direct (by people) election of the senate. To be elected to the senate a person must be at least 30 years of age, a citizen of the US for at
least nine years, and a resident of the state from which he is elected. There
are 100 senators from 50 states, each senator represents his home state Senators are elected for a term of 6 years, but one third of the senate is elected every 2 years {2/3 are always experienced senators). Presiding officer
- Vise President (when he is absent senate chases a President pro tempore)

2) Membership in the House of Representatives based on a number of population, its size is- not mentioned in the constitution. To become a member of the House of Representatives a person
must be at least-25, a citizen for 7 years, and a resident of the state which he represents. 435 members (the number determined by Congress in 1913), each represents a district in his home state. The size of a district today is 530000 persons. Every state is constitutionally guaranteed at least one member of the House of Representative. Representatives are elected for 2 years, in practice most members are reelected several times. Presiding officer - Speaker (2nd to the Vise president in the line of presidential succession).

Big Four – majority party leaders (Democratic and Republican) + the Speaker of the House of Representatives + the Vice-President. They maintain close contacts with the President, exercise strong influence over the making of laws and have a direct hand in the consideration of current home and foreign policy.

12. The president of the US is head of the executive power, or the Chief Executive, in addition he has important legislative and judicial power. The official residence the White House, Washington, DC. Must be at least 35, a resident of the country for at least 14 years and a national born citizen. The President is elected to a four-year term, for no more than two terms.. Everyday work of the government is carried out by 14 departments (ministries, created by Congress: State, Treasury, Defense etc.), the heads of these departments, chosen by the President and approved by the senate, form the Cabinet.
Functions.1) Executive ( carry out the government programs, issue executive orders, which have the force of low, can influence on public opinion)
2) Legislative (recommends laws to Congress, requests money for federal government operations, can veto any bill passed by Congress, though his veto may be overruled by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress)



3) Has authority to appoint the heads of all executive departments and agencies and other high-ranking officials [appointments must be approved by senate). Can grant full or conditional pardon to anyone accused of breaking a
federal low.

4) Responsible for foreign relations with other nations (treaties must be approved by 2/3 vote of senate).
Foreign policy (the latter half of 20-21st cent)

1) US acting as a global.-policeman

2)By the time of the collapse of the USSR, the US had military and economic interests in every region of the globe (interventions in Panama, Iraq)

3)Lack of support of environmental treaties (quitted the Kyoto" Protocol)

4)In 2007 03 decided to deploy anti- ,
ballistic systems in the Chech Republic and-Poland. In 2008 Obama was elected as President of the USA. His main aims in foreign policy are: he'd draw down forces in Iraq; open talks with adversaries such as Iran, Syria and Cuba; end torture and close Guantánamo; renounce unilateralism and preventive wars; rebuild ties with allies; and re-engage with the Kyoto climate change initiative. He's also pledged to halt the development of and to seek a "world without nuclear weapons." Obama would start to put the threat of terrorism in its proper perspective, elevating the importance of other threats to security, from poverty to pandemic disease to global warming. Obama promises to increase Pentagon spending, boost the size of the Army and Marines, bolster the Special Forces, expand intelligence agencies and maintain the hundreds of US military bases that dot the globe.



13. The process of president elections.

The method of electing President is peculiar to the US. The presidential election is technically an election of presidential electors, not of a President directly. The people of each state don't vote directly for the president. They elect as many electors as this state has senators and representatives in the congress. These electors are selected exclusively by the corresponding party machines. The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of the state. The electors of all 50 states and District Columbia (3 electors) compose the Electoral Collage (538 persons), though it never meets as a body. The Electoral College is an example of an indirect election. Instead the electors gather in the state capitals shortly after the election and cast their votes for the candidate with the largest number of popular votes in their respective states. To be elected President, a candidate must receive 270 votes. If no candidate has a majority, the decision should be made by the House of Representatives, with all members from a state voting as a unit. In this state, each state and the District Columbia would be given one vote only. Candidates for the Presidency are chosen by political parties several months before the presidential election, which is held every four years. 2004 - Bush was reelected for his 2ntt term. 2008 – B.Obama. His main aims in foreign policy are: he'd draw down forces in Iraq; open talks with adversaries such as Iran, Syria and Cuba; end torture and close Guantánamo; renounce unilateralism and preventive wars; rebuild ties with allies; and re-engage with the Kyoto climate change initiative. He's also pledged to halt the development of and to seek a "world without nuclear weapons." Obama would start to put the threat of terrorism in its proper perspective, elevating the importance of other threats to security, from poverty to pandemic disease to global warming. Obama promises to increase Pentagon spending, boost the size of the Army and Marines, bolster the Special Forces, expand intelligence agencies and maintain the hundreds of US military bases that dot the globe.


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