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Theoretical information. Assessing the impact of solid waste on land resources




Laboratory work №6

Assessing the impact of solid waste on land resources

Purpose:to get acquainted with the problem of waste in Ukraine and to study the method of assessing economic losses from pollution by solid waste.

Task:

1. To study the classification of waste.

2. To get acquainted with the methods of waste disposal

3. To study methods of waste management.

4. Analyze the consequences of improper waste manner for the natural environment.

5. Assess the economic losses from pollution of land resources..

Theoretical information

Waste can be divided according it’s characteristics:

• By the state of matter on: Gas, liquid and solid.

• By the origin on: municipal and industrial

Waste (solid) – 100 %
Wastes of mining industry ( Dnipropetrovs’k, Donetsk, Zaporozhe regions) (88 %) Wastes from other spheres of industry (10 %) municipal waste (2 %)

According to expert estimate there are nearly 30 billion tons of accumulated wastes in Ukraine. The distribution of waste in Ukraine:

 

60mln tons of municipal waste accumulated by now in Ukraine. Level of their recycling is nearly 35%, while in developed countries it is much higher - 50-70%, and in Japan - 90%.

The most common method of waste disposal in Ukraine is their utilization. There is 6000 polygons in Ukraine that have used their resources, only 4 incinerators (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa and Dnipropetrovsk) and more than 3 thousand unauthorized dumps.

Another problem is handling of toxic waste, accumulated in the amount of 63 million tons, while 20 tons of them are not usable and contaminated with chemical pesticides. It is chemically stable compounds with long half-lives. They have the ability to accumulate in the soil and water supply chains, increasing its concentration at each trophic level by several times. So, in the end, pesticides accumulate in human tissues and can cause disease of the nervous system, heart, liver etc.

MSW include:


Paper and cardboard -30%;

Food waste - 28 %;

Glass -12%;

Black metal - 10 %;

Plastic - 5 %;

Wood waste - 5 %;

Rubber and skin 3 %;

Textile - 2 %;

nonferrous metals - 1 %;

others - 3 %.


MSW collection ways:

Accumulation (collection) with no partition to separate components;

Separating.

Conventionally methods of disposal and recycling are divided into:

1. Liquidation - full disposal of waste.

2. Utilization - getting some benefits (heat, light, certain materials).

3. Reuse - Recycling – Getting new products of the same type (paper made of recycled paper, scrap metal and so on) from waste.



Methods of Waste Treatment:

1. Burial waste in landfills;

2. Burning in combustion plants;

3. Disposal of hazardous substances of the following ways:

- Mechanical method of cleaning from sediment in special purpose reservoirs for cleaning liquid wastes (filtration, precipitation, etc.);

- Chemical purification by which hazardous waste components are transformed into balance or folded;

- Physico-chemical treatment, mainly using electrolysis or ion exchange resins;

- Biological purification by bacteria or other organisms that may decompose harmful substances (activated sludge method, bio Plato, composting and biogas creation).

Composting - a way to get organic fertilizers as the result of biological decomposition of organic waste.

 


The consequences of improper waste management to the environment:

MSW containing a large amount of wet organic matter during decomposition emit very nasty and toxic substances - filtrate. Drying products of incomplete decomposition form severe dust pollution and promote microbial growth. As a result there is a significant pollution of air, soil, surface water and groundwater. Such animals like flies, rats, birds, stray dogs and cats are carriers of pathogens (including speakers of different diseases). The microorganisms were found in areas of landfills are pathogens of hepatitis, tuberculosis, dysentery, respiratory diseases, skin allergies and other diseases.

In addition to gas and dust that is formed as the result of the solid waste decomposition and pollute the air, especially dangerous are gaseous emissions generated by burning garbage in landfills.



These emissions are often contain dioxins - highly stable organic pollutants. Dioxins are able to break down the human hormone system, leading to immune deficiency and decrease the body's defenses, promote the development of women's diseases, increasing the number of miscarriages and birth of children with disabilities. In addition, the result of burning is accumulation of a large number of ash (30% of the original mass of dust) with a high content of toxic substances.

 


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