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The USA is a country of highly developed economy. Heavy industry includes such branches as mining, metallurgical engineering and chemical industries. Detroit is a large motor-car industry centre. Shipbuilding is developed along the Atlantic coast and in San Francisco on the Pacific coast.
Textile industry is also well-developed, especially in the South near large cotton plantations.
Agriculture is very wide-spread, above all in the prairie regions, where wheat and other grain crops are grown.
Cotton is grown in the Mississippi Valley, tobacco in Maryland and Virginia. California is famous for its fruit plantations, and the West-for its cattle-farming. Poultry-farming is wide-spread in the countryside near all big cities.
North America was rich in animal species until explorers from Europe began to visit and set up the feather trade. By the 20th century 70 or more species of animals that had been common disappeared. Bison which were numerous when the Spanish and the French arrived were annihilated in the east by 1825.When railways were built in 1869 vast herds were also killed off in the west. As the Indians depended on their food and skins the white men felt they were killing two birds with one stone the elimination of the bison would make life hard for the Indians.
1. Natural characteristics of the main geographic regions in the USA: New England, Middle Atlantic, South, Midwest, Southwest, West.
2. Describe the climate of the USA? Which parts of the USA have a continental climate? What is characteristics of this climate?
3. The main economic regions of the USA. Mineral resources and their deposits.
4. The role of the USA in the World Economy.
9- Lecture. Theme: A brief history of the United States (before the independence)
Plan: 1. The first Inhabitants
2. Discovery of America (Europe’s first Explorers)
3. English Settlements
4. The English colonies
5. Trouble in the colonies
Scandinavia[skæ ndi´ neivjә ]- Скандинавия
Iceland [´ aislә nd] - Исландия
Greenland[´ gri: nlә nd]- Гренландия
Leif Ericsson [´ li: f´ eriksn] - Лейф Эрикссон
Newfoundland[nju: fә ndlә nd] - Ньюфаундленд
Vinland [´ vinlә nd] - Винлэнд
The Mediterranean Sea [meditә ´ reinjә n´ si: ] - Средиземное море
China [´ t∫ ainә ] - Китай
Italian [i´ tæ ljә n]- итальянец
Marco Polo [´ ma: kou´ poulou] - Марко Поло
Portuguese [, pɔ: tju´ gi: z]- португальский
Portugal [pɔ ː tjʊ gə l] Португалия
Spain [speɪ n] Испания
Spanish [´ spæ nɪ ʃ ] испанский
Christopher Columbus [´ krɪ stə fə kə ´ lʌ mbə s] Христофор Колумб
Italy [´ ɪ tə li] Италия
Queen Isabella [´ kwi: n izә ´ belә ] королева Изабелла
King Ferdinand [kɪ ŋ ´ fә: dɪ nә nd] король Фернинанд
the Indies [ð ə ´ indiz] Индия
Hispaniola [, hispә n´ joulә ] Эспаньола
Cuba [kju: bə ] Ку́ ба
the Philippine Islands [ð ə ´ fɪ lɪ pi: n aɪ lə ndz] Филиппинские острова
John Cabot [´ dʒ ɔ n´ kæ bә t] Джон кабот
The Netherlands [ð ə ´ nɛ ð ə lə ndz] Нидерла́ нды
Jamestown [dʒ æ mztaun] Джемстаун
the Piligrims [ð ə ´ pilgrimz] пилигримы
the Mayflower [ð ə ´ meiflauә ] Мейфлауэр
they could worship [´ w3´ ʃ ɪ p] смогли бы отправлять блогослужение
Plymouth [plɪ mə θ ] Плимут
Samoset [sæ mә ´ set] Самосет
Squanto [´ skwontou] Сквонто
Thanksgiving [θ æ ŋ ksgɪ vɪ ŋ ] благодарение
The Puritans [ð ə ´ pjuә ritә nz]пуритане
The Charles River [ð ə ´ t∫ ә: lz´ rivә ]
Boston [´ bostә n] Бостон
Pillory [´ pilә ri] позорный столб
The content of the lecture: THE FIRST INHABITANTS
Imagine a time many thousands of years ago. A group of hunters came to a huge, unexplored land. They were the first people in America.
For many thousands of ears the descendants of those hunters moved farther into the new territory. Finally they settled in all parts of the land. Different groups developed different languages and customs. These people were American Indians, or Red Indians.
Then, one day, a new group of travelers came to the land. They had new customs, new languages and a very different way of life. They were Europeans.
No one knows exactly how people first came to North America. However, many scientists believe that America’s first settlers were hunters who came from Siberia.
These hunters followed big animals over a large bridge into what is now Alaska.
About two million years ago the weather in the northern half of the earth changed greatly. It grew colder. The snow that fell did not melt in summer. Much of the land was covered with huge glaciers. This period of time is called the Ice Age because so much of the North was covered with ice. Sea water froze, and the water level in sea dropped. There is a narrow strait between the Bering and Chukchi Seas. During the Ice Age this strait probably became very shallow. In some places it dried up completely and formed a land bridge from Asia to North America.
The scientists think that the people of Asia found this land bridge between 15, 000 and 40, 000 years ago. Group after group moved across the bridge to the unexplored continent of North America. They passed through what is now Alaska and western Canada.
2. Discovery of America (Europe’s first Explorers)
The first Europeans to reach North America were Icelandic Vikings, led by Leif Ericson, about the year 1000. Traces of their visit have been found in the Canadian province of Newfoundland, but the Vikings failed to establish a permanent settlement and soon lost contact with the new continent.
Five centuries later, the demand for Asian spices, textiles, and dyes spurred European navigators to dream of shorter routes between East and West. Acting on behalf of the Spanish crown, in 1492 the Italian navigator Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe and landed on one of the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean Sea. Within 40 years, Spanish adventurers had carved out a huge empire in Central and South America.
Christopher Columbus (1451- 1506)
Christopher Columbuswas born in Italy and grew up near the sea. Columbus, as well as some learned men of his time, had decided that the eastern coast of Asia could be reached by sailing westward across the Atlantic. Columbus thought, also, that Asia was no farther from Europe on the west then we know now America to be. He thought the East Indies were directly west from the Canary Islands. In these far-away lands men thought they should find honour, wealth, and fame.
Such an enterprise would require the equipment of vessels at much expense. Money and influence were essential. Columbus had neither. He sent his brother to England and to France. Then went to Spain again. Finally, after seven years of waiting, Columbus found success. Isabella, Queen of Spain, agreed to aid him in carrying out his plans. There small vessels, only one of which had a deck, were fitted out. The largest of these, the Santa Maria, was commanded by Columbus. The others were the Nina and the Pinta. Before sunrise, August 3, 1492, this little fleet, with one hundred and twenty men and provisions for a years, sailed out of the port Palos.
At last, after a voyage of ten weeks, land was discovered on October 12, 1492. Columbus had discovered one of the Bahama Islands which he called San Salvador. He coasted along the shores of Cuba and Haiti.
He did not find the cities of Asia as he had expected, but he had no doubt that he was in the East Indies, and therefore called the natives Indians.
When Columbus returned to Spain with the news of his discovery the people were enthusiastic with delight. Men were now eager to go where they expected to get all kinds of wealth. Four voyages were made in all, but when adventurers reached the land of their hopes and found no silks, no spices, no precious stones, no gold, they reproached Columbus. The Court of Spain, also, finding no return for the great expense of fitting out these expeditions, censured him. His enemies increased, and his last days were spent in disappointment and neglect. Heart-broken, he died ignorant of the greatness of his own discovery.
Amerigo Vespucci (1451 or 1454-1512)
Amerigo Vespucci, a native of Florence and a navigator, was first employed by Spain and later by Portugal, to make explorations. In 1499 he skirted the coast of Venezuela and northeastern South America. During the next four years he made several voyages to Brazil, and explored its coasts as far south as the mouth of the La Plata River. On returning to Europe he wrote a good descriptions of what he had seen. This was published in 1504, and constituted the first printed account of the mainland of the New World. Up to that time Europe, Asia, and Africa were known as the three parts of the world, and one distinguished geographer believed there was an unknown southern continent which constituted the fourth part.
It now seemed clear that Amerigo Vespucci proved the existence of the fourth part. In consequence of this belief a German professor, who printed a little treatise on geography a few years later, suggested that the fourth part should be called America, after Amerigo Vespucci. According to this suggestion the name America was at first applied to Brazil, later to South America, and later still to the whole of the New World.