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D I P H T H E R I A
PRE – TEXT ASSIGNMENT
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation:
Deleterious [ delitiə riə s ], temperate [ 'tempə rit ], throughout [θ ru(:)'aut ], susceptible [sə 'sə ptə bl], menace [ 'menə s ], robust [ rə u'bΛ st], faucial [ fə: siə l ], raw [rə: ], myocarditis [maio(u)ka: daitis], mandatory [ 'mæ ndə tə ri ], quarantine
['kwə rə nti: n ], successive [sə k'sesiv ].
Exercise 2. Topic vocabulary:
fibrin – фибрин
deleterious – вредный, вредоносный
temperate – умеренный
dissemination – распространение
experience – испытывать
susceptible – восприимчивый
menace – угроза, опасность
predispose – предрасполагать
robust – крепкий, здоровый
pillar of fauces – небные дужки
dreadful – плохой, ужасный
apt to smth – склонный, подверженный
employment – использование, применение
stiffness – онемение, одеревенение, окостенелость
raw – лишенный кожи, свежий, чувствительный
mandatory – обязательный, принудительный
successive – следующий один за другим, последующий
culture – выращивание бактерий
Exercise 3. Match the following English word combinations with Russian ones:
1. absorbed by blood stream 1. распространяться при прямом контакте
2. produce deleterious effect on 2. внезапное начало
3. spread by direct contact 3. всасываться кровотоком
4. put in an appearance 4. производить вредное действие на
5. healthy carrier 5. по расположению
6. according to the distribution 6. появиться ненадолго
7. insidious onset 7. здоровый носитель
Exercise 4. Read and translate the following sentences. Define the form and function of Participle I in the sentences:
1. Looking at some case reports the doctor explained something to his assistants. 2. The student is examining the patient together with the doctor- in-charge. 3. As the patient complains of a severe headache the nurse is giving him some medicines. 4. Examining the patient the doctor noticed some changes in his recovery. 5. The moaning patient didn’t hear when the doctor on duty entered the ward.
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:
Diphtheria is an acute contagious disease caused by specific organism bacillus diphtheria.
It is characterized by local inflammation with fibrin formation of the mucous membranes, usually of the upper respiratory tract, with production of a toxin which when absorbed into the blood stream may produce deleterious effects on various parts of the body, especially the heart and peripheral nerves.
The disease exists throughout the world but is more common in temperate zones and during the colder months, autumn and winter. It is commonly spread by direct contact which must be fairly intimate. Dissemination by third objects such as clothes, toys, etc. may also occur and carriage by milk has been reported many times. Healthy carriers may disseminate the disease to susceptible persons and thus constitute a menace to public health. Children appear to be more liable to diphtheria than adults; although the most robust people may be attacked and those whose health is weakened by any cause are especially predisposed.
The incubation period is three to ten days. The disease may be divided into three main forms according to the anatomical distribution of the membrane: a) faucial or pharyngeal; b) laryngeal; c) nasal.
The onset of the disease is insidious with relatively moderate temperature reaction. In general, following an incubation period of about two days, symptoms set in like those commonly accompanying a cold. A slight feeling of uneasiness in the throat is experienced along with some stiffness of the back of the neck. The earliest objective manifestation of the disease is the formation of a thin film of fibrin on the tonsils which increases in thickness to form characteristic yellowish-white or grayish-white pseudomembrane.
The throat appears to be reddened and somewhat swollen. If the pseudomembrane is forcibly removed, it is found to separate from the underlying true mucous membrane with difficulty and leaves a raw, bleeding surface on which in the untreated cases a fresh membrane rapidly reforms. The lesion tends to spread over the pillars and onto the soft palate and uvula. Hence any membranous formation on pharyngeal tissues should immediately be regarded as a suspicion of diphtheria.
Myocarditis is the most dreadful of all complications of diphtheria. It is due to direct action of the toxin on the heart muscle.
Another severe complication is peripheral neuritis. It occurs in the form of paralysis affecting the soft palate and throat. Other forms of paralysis are paralysis of eye or even respiratory muscles, paralysis of a limb or both legs. These symptoms, however, after continuing for a variable length of time, almost always ultimately disappear.
The outcome of the disease depends mainly on one factor, namely, the early administration of adequate doses of antitoxin. Its employment in any recognized or even suspected case of diphtheria is mandatory and no physician can delay its administration. The second important measure is rest, the patient being kept strictly flat.
Patients suffering from diphtheria should be isolated for at least two weeks after the onset of the disease, and then until three successive cultures from the nose and throat taken not less than 48 hours apart are negative.
POST - TEXT ASSIGNMENT
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:
1. What is diphtheria caused by?
2. Is it contagious disease?
3. What is the disease characterized by?
4. Where is diphtheria more common?
5. Who is more liable to diphtheria?
6. What is the incubation period of the disease?
7. What are the main forms of diphtheria?
8. What are its main symptoms?
9. What are its main complications?
10.What does the outcome of the disease depend on?
Exercise 7. Translate into English and make up 5 sentences with them:
oстрое инфекционное заболевание, местное воспаление, всасываться кровотоком, слизистая оболочка, вредное воздействие, во всем мире, распространяться при непосредственном контакте, здоровый носитель, быть более подверженным, самые здоровые (крепкие) люди, быть особенно предрасположенным, появляться ненадолго, отложить назначение, по крайней мере, начало заболевания.
Exercise 8. Fill in the gaps to read the words and word combinations.
1. _i_ _e_in_t_o_
2. l…c…l in…la…ma…io…
3. _u_ _u_
4. _e_ _r_n_
5. _e_ _t_r _ _ _s e_f_ct
7. r_s_i_e__r_ _u_c_es
8. _ n_ _ _a_i_n _ e_ _ o_
9. _t_f_n_ _s
10. a_ _it_xi_
11. _re_i_ _o_e_
Exercise 9. Give English equivalents to the words in braсkets:
1. Diphtheria is an (острое инфекционное) disease.
2. It is characterized by (местным воспалением) with fibrin formation of the (слизистой оболочки) of the (верхних дыхательных путей).
3. The disease exists (по всему миру) but is more common (в умеренных зонах).
4. It is commonly spread (при прямом контакте).
5. Сhildren appear to be (более подвержены) to diphtheria than (взрослые).
6. Most (крепкие) people may be (инфицированы) and those whose health is weakened by any cause are especially (предрасположены).
7. The earliest objective (проявление) of the disease is the formation of (тонкой пленки на миндалинах).
8. If the pseudomembrane is forcibly removed, it leaves (свежую кровоточащую) surface.
9. (Исход заболевания) depends largely on one factor, namely, (назначения соответствующей дозы антитоксина).
10. Patients suffering from diphtheria should be (изолированы) for at least two weeks after (начала заболевания).
Exercise 9. Fill in the articles where necessary.
1. The old man was seriously ill. He was running … high temperature.
2. I’ve … bad cold in … head. I must have caught … cold yesterday when I ran out into … yard without … cap on.
3. She overworked and had … bad headache. People who do not get enough … sleep often have … headaches.
4. I have only … slight headache. No pills for me, thank you.
5. I have … splitting headache and … bad cold in … head. I must have caught … cold. I am afraid I shall fall ill with … flu.
6. I have … sore throat. I feel … pain in my side. – You must stay in … bed and call … doctor in.
7. Take … table spoonful of … mixture twice … day after … meals.
8. I had … bad cold. I went to bed and drank … cup of hot tea with raspberry jam. It helped to beat down … temperature.
9. … weather was bad yesterday. I must have caught … cold when I was going … home from … work.
10. He stayed at … home and called … doctor in. … doctor diagnosed … case and prescribed him … medicine.
Exercise 10. Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense:
1. Whom … the doctor … at the hospital every day? (treat)
2. What … you … now? (study)
3. What … the surgeon already …? (transfuse)
4. What … the surgeon … for two hours? (perform)
5. What … the lecturer … yesterday at 3 o’clock? (report on)
6. What … you … to do before you saw me? (decide)
7. What … the nurse … for an hour before the surgeon began the operation? (sterilize)
8. What … you … tomorrow at 6 o’clock? (do)
9. What … you … tomorrow? (take part in)
10. How many patients … the doctor … tomorrow by 5 p.m.? (hospitalize)
Exercise 11. Speak on following items:
Epidemiology of diphtheria.
Exercise 12. Compose a case history using the key words:
To be admitted to the hospital, to complain of, on physical examination, symptoms, to reveal, laboratory findings, antitoxin treatment, the course of the disease, convalescence.
1. Diphtheria is an acute contagious disease... by specific organism bacillus diphtheria.
a) is caused
d) has been caused
2. The disease...throughout the world.
d) is existing
e) was existing
3. The incubation period.., days.
b) 7 to 9
d) 3 to 10
e) 5 to 10
4. A thin film of fibrin on the tonsils forms characteristic.., pseudomembrane.
5. Children... to be more liable to diphtheria.
c) is appeared
6. The lesion... to spread over the pillars and onto the soft palate.
c) is tended
d) to tend
7. What... the outcome of the disease depend on?
8 The disease may be divided... 3 main forms.
9. Peripheral neuritis occurs in the forms of... affecting the soft palate and throat.
10. The outcome of the disease depends mainly on one factor, namely, the early administration of…