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Countertrade is a term which denotes various methods of linking two export transactions. The simplest forms of countertrade are reciprocal sales and barters.

Normal dealings in international trade are carried out by contracts of sale where the sale of goods means an exchange of goods for money. But if a contract provides for an exchange of goods for goods or services, it is not a contract of sale in the legal sense, but it is a barter. In American law, however, a contract of barter is also a .: 'Mract of sale.

Normal rules governing a contract of barter are not well defined in English law. The contract of barter is assimilated to the contract of sale, as far as the terms implied by the law into the contract are concerned. The property in the goods, supplied in a barter by each party to the other, passes when the parties intend to pass.

The developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the East European States, the oil exporting countries and other countries demand in a growing measure countertrade arragements when accepting the supply of goods or services from exporters in the industrialised countries. Some developing countries lack hard currency and credit facilities to pay for their imports in money and also wish to expand their own export markets. The foreign trade organisations of European countries seek to balance their exports and imports in compliance with the requirements of their national economies. Oil exporting countries use the oil which they produce as consideration in kind for industrial and other products they require.

Примечания к тексту:

countertrade - встречная торговля

to link - связывать (две или более операции)

transaction - сделка (торговая)

reciprocal sale - взаимная торговля

barter - бартер

contract - контракт

to assimilate - сравнивать (ся)

background - фон

developing countries - развивающиеся страны

oil - нефть

to lack - испытывать недостаток в чем-либо

hard currency - твердая валюта

to expand markets - расширять рынки

to seek - быть неспособным (к чему-либо)

in compliance with - в соответствии с чем-либо




It is better to cooperate with nature than to fight her. In other words let us not COMBAT OUR ENVIRONMENT. Let us adjust ourselves to it.

Here is an extract from the long-term Programme for the Development and Deeping of Trade, Economic Industrial Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the USSR and the Republic of Finland till 199...: "VII. Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection.

Taking into consideration that the protection of environment against POLLUTION, as well as the localization and removal of POLLUTANTS already formed, is one of the most important tasks of the present days, the Parties shall continue and develop their cooperation on the. protection of environment and nature. In so doing they shall pay special attention to planning measures for environmental protection and for the development of technologies and cooperation in this field.

The parties consider it important to develop this cooperation especially in the field of the PULP-AND-PAPER and CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES, collection, transportation, and TREATMENT of WASTE in populated localities, construction, water economy, land use and agriculture.

In this connection the Parties consider as promising the following types of cooperation:

· planning joint measures intended to prevent the pollution of the air, land, water reservoirs and the Baltic Sea;

· working out safety measures for the transportation of goods dangerous to the

· developing technologies for PURIFYING stations and of purifying equipment for drinking water and SEWAGE;

· developing technologies for the collection, transportation and treatment of waste with a view to LESSENING the waste-caused damage to the environment; purposeful use waste;

· improving sound INSULATION in buildings to prevent noise and also thermal installation to save energy;

· working out more efficient, from the viewpoint of nature and environmental
protection, LOGGING MACHINERY and equipment.


Примечания к тексту:

environmental protection - защита окружающей среды

to combat our environment - бороться с природой

pollution - загрязнение воздуха

pollutant - загрязняющие воздух вещества

pulp-and-paper industry - бумажная промышленность

chemical industry - химическая промышленность

purifying (stations) - очистные (станции)

sewage - нечистоты, мусор, хлам

to lessen smth - уменьшать (что-либо)

insulation - проникновение (воздуха, тепла и т.д.) logging machinery - аппараты по заготовке леса



Trade in services is now an important element of world economic ties. The major exporters and importers of services are the USA and Great Britain, Japan and Germany, France and Italy. Its volume has greatly increased recently. The UK, for example, gains half of its overseas EARNINGS from its service industries.

There are new services associated with the rapid developments of telecommunication facilities and computer equipment and traditional ones. They cover transport and tourism, CATERING and hotel facilities, banking, finance and insurance, science, education and personel training, trade warehousing and communications. Services may be engineering-and consulting, inforrnation-and-computer, data-processing, advertising, legal, stock exchange and intermediary, leasing market research and quality control, after-sales and technical maintenance.

Numerous modem services are also related to the export of scientific, technical and production experiences (know-how, patents and licences).

Such services as training of foreign students and the activity of international organizations on the territory of the country may bring it good earnings too, for example, these services bring the USA the world's largest revenues.

On the other hand, this diversification leads to the fact that each engineering export firm specializes in a few economic sectors to make its services competitive, for example, pre-investment services, those linked with the design and construction of projects, special services and consultations-modernization, control systems, computers, market research, cartography and many others.

To by-pass the existing restrictions in certain developed and developing countries for trade in services, American transnational corporations have been setting up their own local network of services throughout the whole world.


Примечания к тексту:

services - услуги

economic ties - экономические связи

volume - объем (торговый)

earnings - доходы, прибыль, поступления

equipment - оборудование

catering - поставка продуктов

insurance - страховое дело

personal training - подготовка персонала

advertising - связанные с рекламой

quality-control - контроль за качеством

technical maintenance - техническое обслуживание

to relate (to) - иметь отношение (к)

know-how - ноу-хау; секрет изготовления, производства

patent - патент

revenue - государственный доход; доходная статья

on the other hand - с другой стороны

diversification - процесс вкладывания капитала в разные предприятия

to lead (to) - привести (к)

competitive - соревнующийся, способный к соревнованию

to by-pass - преодолеть (ограничения и т.д.)

restrictions - ограничения



То increase the effectiveness of production we should make rational use of the advantages of international division of labour and of foreign economic ties.

Licence trade emerged much later than goods trade at the time when capitalist economy reached a high level of development, which was accompanied by growing

division of labour not only in the field of industrial production, but also in scientific research, project and design work and its industrial application.

Trade of scientific-technical achievements on the basis of licence agreements appeared as far back as in the 18th century. During the second half of the 19th century licence trade was mainly practiced within countries with large local markets. And it was not until the end of the 19th century that it started to quickly develop internationally. The fast development of international trade in licences testifies that their import saves a lot of time, money and labour or one's own research and design work.

After The Second World War licence trade flourished. The analysis of international licence trade shows that the early 50's (fifties) saw a continues and fast growth of licence trade in all industrially developed capitalist countries. It also shows the it considerably charged geographically, first of all because East European countries began practicing it; and secondly because the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America started importing licences.

The patent issued for the invention gives its owner, for the period of time of it being in force, the right to produce, use or sell the products on the monopoly basis of the invention or specific methods of their production. If the patent owner in consideration of payment transfers the complete ownership of the invention to
another person, i.e. the full rights to use his invention, it is the sale of patent on the
basis of a patent agreement. If the patent owner retains the right to ownership of the invention and only permits in consideration of payment to use his right for a certain period of time, then it is the sale of a licence on the use of the invention on the basis of a licence agreement.

A licence agreement is the one according which the owner of the scientific and technical achievements, inventions, know-how, industrial samples, trademarks as well as scientific-technical and other knowledge associated with them (the so called licence) transfers the right to and/or permits his counterpart (the so called licence) in consideration of payment to use them within the time stipulated or for a certain period of time.

Under licence agreements export (import) scientific-technical achievements may be made both independently and along with the sale of goods (equipment, machinery, instruments, raw materials, components and other products) required to realize scientific-technical achievements for industrial (commercial) use.

In realization of traditional contracts of sale concluded as a rule for relatively short period of time the Seller does not limit the right of the Buyer to dispose of the goods bought as he likes. The Buyer to as the owner of the goods may re-sell them to another country or even destroy them. Under the licence agreement is about scientific-technical cooperation for a long period of time, and mutual exchange of technical information may be subject to payment or tree of charge.

International licence agreements may be classified according to their subject, according to the volume of rights transferred and according to the methods of safeguarding the subject of the licence agreements.

The subject of the licence agreement may be inventions, industrial samples, the right to use them and trademarks, know-how and scientific-technical and other knowledge associated with them required to realize the aims of the licence agreements.


Примечания к тексту:

licence agreements - лицензионное соглашение

effectiveness - эффективность

production - производство

advantage - преимущества

economic ties - экономические связи

to emerge - появиться, зародиться

goods trade - торговля товарами

application - применение

on the basis of- на основе (чего-либо)

local market - внутренний рынок

to testify - подтверждать

to leave - экономить

to flourish - процветать

considerably - в значительной мере

to set up - учреждать (фирму и т.д.)

patent owner - владелец патента

in consideration of- ради (чего-либо), в случае

sale - акт продажи, сбыта; торговая сделка

to retain the right - сохранить право (на что-либо)

raw materials - сырье

to limit the right - ограничить право

to re-sell (goods) - перепродать (товары)

in most cases - в большинстве случаев

mutual - взаимный

free of charge - бесплатный

to safeguard - сохранять, охранять




Основная учебная литература

1. Газаева К.А., Трошко Т.Г. Английский язык: Справ материалы М.: Просвещение 2012

2. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка М.:UNVES, 2011

3. Бонк Н.А., Котий Г.А. Лукьянова Н.А. Учебник английского языка Минск: Вышейш.шк.,2012

4. Murphy Raymond English grammar in use Cambridge, 2010

5. Naylor Helen with Murphy Raymond Essensial grammar in use. Cambridge University Press. 2012


Дополнительная учебная литература

1. Англо-русский словарь

2. Русско-английский словарь.

3. Специализированные словари по изучаемой специальности.


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