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Everybody knows that many of the rights of citizens are considered human rights. For example, a constitutional right is one which a state guarantees to its own citizens and sometimes even to foreigners who are within its jurisdiction. Still a question comes: What are human rights? Not everyone agrees that being born a human being entitled someone to certain freedoms and certain treatment. And those who agree have different opinions as to what these rights are. A human right is one to which people all over the world are entitled, whatever their nationality and wherever they live.
Most of the law in the world is made by governments for their own people. But human rights are independent of any political divisions. They are basic minimum standards of freedom and security for all people. When governments do not meet these standards, they are criticized by their own citizens and even by foreign governments. Sometimes some countries impose economic sanction against those countries where human rights are violated. For example, many countries have limited trade to South Africa because of the policy of apartheid (апартеид).
As a rule, human rights are violated when governments violate their own constitutions, and very often their policies make citizens to escape to other countries. But legally, most countries of the world have signe international agreements concerning the treаtment of individuals. The most important agreement is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) adopted by UN General Assembly in 1948. Article 1 of UDHR declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and Article 2 states that it does not depend upon race, color, sex, language, religion or any other difference among people.
Ex.1.Сверяясь с текстом, выберите нужное значение следующих слов.
1. to entitle – озаглавливать, называть, давать право на
2. treаtment – лечение, обращение, обработка
3. trade – профессия, производство, торговля
4. security – залог, гарантия, охрана, безопасность
5. to adopt – заимствовать, принимать, усыновлять
Ex.2. Вставьте слова, приведённые в скобках.
1. This… with… to racial equality but he strongly protest… sexial equality (against, politician, the right, agrees)
2. …suffer economic and social… when they… paid… for… the same work as men. (inequality,doing, are, women, less).
Ex.3. Выберите нужную форму.
1. In 1978 Saida Elmi (arresred, was arrested) by the Somali government and (was held, hold) in prison for 6 years and (tortured, was tortured).
2. Torture (is used, used) to get information from prisoners or jist (to frighten, to be frightened) them.
3. A GROUP of women in Saudi Arabia (broke, was broken) the law by driving cars in a country where only men (permit, are released) when their husbands (were taken, took) them home and (promised, were promised) to keep them out of trouble.
Ex.4. Переведите письменно со словарем.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) was first adopted in 1950 and has now been signed by every country of Western Europe. Individual citizens of these countries have the rights to bring a complaint before the EC if they think their government has broken the Convention. If the Commission agrees, it may try to persuade the country in question to testify the breach, or it may refer the matter to the European Count of Human Rights, which has the right to order a change of law in that country. Covering countries with similar cultures and economic conditions, the ECHR is more practical then many international human rights agreements.
Ex.5.Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Did you have any idea about human right problem before reading this article?
2. Are there any facts in the article that are quite new to you? What are they?
3. Are there any facts you find the most surprising? What are they?
4. What is your opining of the things described?
5. Do you have any observations about violation of human rights either in your country or in any other?
Ex.6. Просмотрите текст за 3 минуты и расскажите по-русски, что
представляет из себя Европейский Суд по правам человека.
The ECHR was established by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and was set up in Strasbourg in 1959. The Convention was inspired by the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and protects many essential (важный) rights such as the right to life, freedom from torture and slavery (рабство) of thought, conscience(совесть) and religion, the right to marry and found a family, freedom of peaceable assembly and association and the right to a fair (справедливый) trial. Only states which are parties to the Convention and the EC of Human Rights have the right to bring a case before the Court.
Ex.1. Red and pick out the sentences of unreal condition:
a) 1.He wanted to know if the performance had ended.
2. He would have sent the telegram if you had told him about it yesterday.
b) 1. Did you know if she had left the town or not?
2. What should I have done if she hadn’t brought an umbrella?
c) 1.I wanted to ask him if he had brought all I had asked him to.
2. I shouldn’t have finished my work if you hadn’t helped me.
d) 1. Who asked me if we had had a nice day?
2. Who would have played this part if the actor had been ill?
e) 1. I shouldn’t have translated this text if you hadn’t helped me.
2. The teacher asked the students if they had finished their work.
Ex. 2. Read and copy out the sentences of unreal condition in the past:
1. They would have prepared for the examination better if they had known about it earlier.2. What would you show in your town if you had visitors from other places? 3. I should send a telegram if I knew his address. 4. The children would have played in the open air if the weather had been better.5.You would have got a better mark if you hadn’t made so many mistakes. What would you do if your friend asked you to help him? 7. We should play the game in the open air if the weather were better.8. She would not have gone out if she had known that she was ill.
Ex.3. Read the sentences and say if the conditions are real, unreal referring to the present (future) or unreal referring to the past. Translate the sentences:
1. We shouldn’t have caught the train if we had left the house ten minutes later.
2. If we leave right now, we shall get tickets.
3. I should be very glad if he came to see us.
4. If it were not so late, we should see some more places of interest.
5. If you had gone to the stadium, you would have seen an interesting match.
6. They would enjoy every minute of the performance if they went to the concert with us.
7. She wouldn’t have forgotten to take her exercise-book if she had put it in her bag yesterday.
8. We should be very glad if you brought your friend with you.