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BUILDING MATERIALS MORTAR
The mortars used in bricklayers' work consist of an admixture of lime, or Portland cement, and sand. A knowledge of the properties of these materials is very necessary to the craftsman, if he is to obtain the best results from' his labours.
Lime is manufactured by the calcination, or burning, of a carbonate of calcium, of which chalk is the commonest example. During calcination, decomposition occurs, and carbonic acid and water are driven off, an oxide of calcium (quicklime) remaining.
If water be added to lumps of quicklime, rapid combination ensues, great heat and volumes of steam being generated. The lumps disintegrate with a series of small explosions, and are eventually reduced to a very fine powder. This process is termed slaking; and when making mortar it is highly necessary that it should be thoroughly carried out, as any unslaked particles subsequently expand and seriously damage the work.
Limes may be divided into three distinct classes — 1. Rich limes. 2.Poor limes. 3. Hydraulic limes.
Rich limes contain not more than, 6 per cent of impurities, slake very rapidly, and are entirely dependent on external agents for setting power. They are chiefly used for interior plasterers' work.
Poor limes contain from 15 per cent to 30 per cent of useless impurities, and possess the general properties of rich limes, only to a lesser degree. They are only fit for unimportant work.
Hydraulic limes contain certain proportions of impurites, which, during calcination, combine with the lime, and endow it with the valuable property of setting under water, or without external agents. The proportions of these impurities determine whether a lime is eminently, moderately, or only feebly hydraulic. The principal limes used in making mortar for constructional work are of the Greystone variety. These have hydraulic properties, and will take a large proportion of sand, without weakening their setting powers. The usual proportions are from two to four parts of sand to one of lime.
The setting of lime depends largely upon its absorption of carbonic acid from the atmosphere. The particles return to their original form of a carbonate, and crystallize. These crystals have a tendency to adhere to anything rough, such as sand or the surfaces of a brick.
Pure lime mortars built into thick walls never harden in the interior. The crystallization of the exterior of the joint when set prevents access of carbon dioxide to the inside of the wall. For this reason,
Portland Cementis an artificial cement, manufactured by calcining chalk and clay, or river mud containing certain chemical constituents in definite proportions. The chalk and clay are ground and mixed into a slurry, which after being strained through very fine sieves, is pumped into an orifice in the top of an inclined revolving cylinder. A blast of intense flame is directed, through this cylinder, which is lined with firebrick. As the slurry drops through the flame, it is burned into small clinkers, which are afterwards ground exceedingly fine in specially constructed mills, and then passed through sieves, having as many as 35,000 meshes to the square inch. The powder is aerated by being spread on wooden floors, with an occasional turning, to ensure the thorough slaking and cooling of all particles. It is then put up in sacks ready for use.
This process of aeration has now been superseded in many cement works by the addition of a small quantity of gypsum (plaster of Paris), which retards the otherwise rapid-setting tendency of a freshly ground cement.
Sand. — When used for mortar, sand should be angular in grain, free from
clay or dirt, and moderately coarse. If too fine, the proportion of lime or cement will have to be considerably increased.
Design - in narrow sense - creative activity which industrial purpose is definition of formal qualities products including:
-External features of a product; and it is especial-
-Structural and functional interrelations which transform a product into a single whole from the point of view of the consumer and from the point of view of the manufacturer.
Design to project. Design takes many forms in different contexts. In the applied arts, such as graphic design, industrial design, fashion design, functional art, and decorative art, design is considered a noun as it is a verb.
Design allows human beings to effectively communicate ideas and information. It cuts across a wide range of applied arts from fashion design to industrial design.
Design as a noun can refer to a drawing or a sketch. It could also be a graphic representation of a detailed plan for construction uses. It may also be described as a basic plan or pattern that could affect or control the environment. Design as a noun can also be used as an intent or purpose, a secret plot or ploy. In the context of a verb, design is the series of different processes involved in creating a plan meant for aesthetic and functional objects. These processes, or the design process, as it can be called, require significant time for deliberation, research, shaping and reshaping, adjustments, and redesign.
To design is to fashion in the mind, to create a plan in a systematic format, to execute plans, and to create designs. Our everyday lives are surrounded by the designs of people who are resourceful, creative and imaginative. We live in houses designed by architects, and ride in cars inspired by engineers. Our household items are product of a new form of art called industrial design.
The clothes we wear from shirts to jeans to underwear clothing are created by ingenious fashion designers, and the furniture pieces we install in our homes were created by the exceptional craftsmanship of their design makers.
To design entails careful evaluation of the product to be created, continuous planning, modeling and remodeling of the product, testing, and redesigning. People who are involved in design are usually creative, organized, and technology conscious.
They are committed to their craft and work well with others, because design is a process which cannot be achieved and perfected alone. This quality also helps them when they deal with clients whose ideas are different from theirs.
The design arena involve careers such as art directing, where you will be tasked to create visual concepts for a large number of products, from billboards to CD jackets.
Another occupation is that of a graphic designer, where you will design the packaging of books, magazines, catalogs, posters, and CD inserts. Industrial designers work in coordination with engineers to create and design everyday items, most of which are mass produced.