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The category of number.
English countable nouns have two numbers Ч thesingular and theplural.
The main types of the plural forms of English nouns are as follows:
1. 1. The general rule for forming the plural of English nouns is by adding the ending (-es) to the singular; -s is pronounced in different ways:
[iz] after sibilants: noses, horses, bridges.
[z] after voiced consonants other than sibilants and after vowels: flowers, beds, doves, bees, boys.
[s] after voiceless consonants other than sibilants: caps, books, hats, cliffs.
2. If the noun ends in -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, or -tchf the plural is formed by adding -es to the singular:
bus Ч buses brush Ч brushes
glass Ч glasses box Ч boxes
bench Ч benches match Ч matches
1 On the use of articles with abstract nouns see Chapter II, І 8, 9, 10
3. If the noun ends in -y preceded by a consonant, y is changed into i before -es.
fly Ч flies
army Ч armies
lady Ч ladies
In proper names, however, the plural is formed by adding the end≠ing to the singular: Mary, Marys.
N o t e. If the final -y is preceded by a vowel the plural is formed by simply adding -5 to the singular.
day Ч days monkey Ч monkeys
play Ч plays toy Ч toys
key Ч keys boy Ч boys
4. If the noun ends in -o preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally formed by adding -es. Only a few nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant form the plural in -5.
cargo Ч cargoes potato Ч potatoes
hero Ч heroes echo Ч echoes
piano Ч pianos solo Ч solos photo Ч photos
All nouns ending in -o preceded by a vowel form the plural in and not in -es.
cuckoo Ч cuckoos
portfolio Ч portfolios
There are a few nouns ending in -o which form the plural both in -5 and -es:
mosquito Ч mosquitos or mosquitoes
5. With certain nouns the final voiceless consonants are changed into the corresponding voiced consonants when the noun takes the plural form.
(a) The following nouns ending in Цf (in some cases followed by a mute e) change it into v (both in spelling and pronunciation) in the plural:
wife Ч wives
knife Ч knives
life Ч lives
sheaf Ч sheaves
leaf Ч leaves
thief Ч thieves
half Ч halves
calf Ч calves
shelf Ч shelves
wolf Ч wolves
There are some nouns ending in Цf which have two forms in the plural:
scarf Ч scarfs or scarves
wharf Ч wharfs or wharves
b) Nouns ending in -th [Ө] after long vowels change it into [ð] in pronunciation (which does not affect their spelling).
bath [ba:Ө] Ч baths [ba:ðz]
path [pa:Ө] Ч paths [pa:ðz] oath [əuӨ] Ч oaths [əuӨ z]
But [Ө] is always retained after consonants (including r) and short vowels:
smith Ч smiths [smiӨs] month Ч months [m۸nӨs] myth Ч myths [miӨs] birth Ч births[b3:Ө] health Ч healths [helӨs]
c) One noun ending in [s] changes it into [z] (in pronunciation):
house [haus] Ч houses ['hauziz]
II. The plural forms of some nouns are survivals of earlier forma≠tions.
1. There are seven nouns which form the plural by changing the root vowel:
man Ч men
woman Ч women
foot Ч feet
tooth Ч teeth
goose Ч geese
mouse Ч mice
louse Ч lice
2. There are two nouns which form the plural in -en:
ox Ч oxen
child Ч children
Note. The noun brother has, beside its usual plural form brothers, another plural form brethren, which is hardly ever used in colloquial language. It belongs to the elevated style and denotes people of the same creed and not relationship.
The noun cow has, beside its usual plural form cows, a plural kine, which sometimes occurs in poetry.
3. In some nouns the plural form does not differ from the singular: deer, sheep, swine, fishy trout.
III.Some words borrowed from Latin or Greek keep their Latin or Greek plural forms: e. g. phenomenon, phenomena; datum, data; crisis, crises; stimulus, stimuli; formula, formulae; index, indices. Some of these nouns have acquired English plural forms: memorandums, formulas, indexes, terminuses, etc.
The tendency to use the foreign plural is still strong in the technical language of science, but in fiction and colloquial English there is an evident inclination to give to certain words the regular English plural forms in -5. Thus in some cases two plural forms are preserved (formulae, formulas; antennae, antennas).
IV. In compound nouns the plural is formed in different ways.
1. In compound nouns the final element takes the plural form:
lady-bird Ч lady-birds
2.As a rule a phrasal compound noun forms the plural by adding -s to the head-word:
editor-in-chief Ч editors-in-chief
brother-in-law Ч brothers-in-law
looker-on Ч lookers-on
3.If there is no noun-stem in the phrasal compound, is added to the last element:
forget-me-not Ч forget-me-nots
merry-go-round Ч merry-go-rounds
V. Some nouns have only the plural form:
1. Trousers, spectacles, breeches, scissors, tongs, fetters. These are for the most part names of things which imply plurality or consist of two or more parts.
2.Billiards, barracks, works. These nouns may be treated as singu≠lars. We may say: a chemical works, a barracks, etc.
3.Words like phonetics, physics, politics, optics, etc. are usually treated as singulars except in some special cases.
It was not practicalpolitics! (Galsworthy)
All partypolitics are top dressing. (Galsworthy)
4.The word news is treated as a singular.
When she goes to make little purchases, there is nonews for her. (Thackeray)
Thenews he gave them was to be read in the lamentations. (Sabatini)
Note. The names of sports teams are normally used with the verb in the plural form:
Scotland are playing France in a football match next week.