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Exercise 1.Read new words and word combinations.
sequence – последовательность sequential - последовательный, логический
Exercise 2.The following terms you should learn.
contorol unit - CU arithmetic-logical unit - ALU
to specify – специфицировать; устанавливать, выставлять (об опциях)
to enable – разрешать, включать, запускать в работу
READ AND TRANSLATE THE TEXT
One of the fundamental parts of the computer is sure to be a control unit. This unit controls the computation process automatically, without man's participation. It sends signals to all other parts of the computer to specify what they must do. First of all, the control unit tells the main memory what data must be transferred to the arithmetic-logical unit and other devices. Then it enables the arithmetic-logical unit to perform the required operation. Finally, it places the obtained results in the main memory.
It is important to note that the control unit operation is determined by an algorithm of a problem solution. You know the algorithm to be a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations. These operations must be performed on the initial data for solving the problem.
Description of an algorithm in a form acceptable by a computer is called a program. A program is a list of sequential computer instructions enabling a computer to solve a problem. In order to be acceptable by the computer instructions must be encoded into a digital form.
In conclusion it should be pointed out that the main feature of a computer is automatic control of the problem solution process. It is based on the programmed-control principle.
Exercise 1.Translate the following sentences with the infinitive and infinitive constructions.
1. Regulators are known to be composed of a number of control elements connected in series. 2. They expected a computer to work for at least several hours without a fault. 3. A problem to be solved by a digital computer must be expressed in mathmatical terms that the computer can accept. 4. The main function of a counter is to select the instructions, one at a time, from memory. 5. Systems software is written to asist people in the use of the computer system.
1. They supposed a computer to perform more than ten million operations. 2. One of the tasks of a register is to hold temporary the instructions read from memory. 3. The next instruction to be executed is read out from primary storage into the storage register. 4. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to stimulate on-going, or real-time processing. 5. Memories are known to be classified as electronic and electromechanical.
1. The purpose of a decoder operation is to take the coded instruction and to break it down into individual commands necessary to carry it out. 2. They state the ‘floppies’ to have been introduced by IBM in 1972. 3. Computers are able to retrieve information in different ways. 4. The CPU is certain to be designed by manufacturers to control and carry out basic instructions. 5. The programs and the data to be processed must be in internal memory.
1. Microprocessors are used primarily to replace or increase random logic design. 2. The main function of a clock is to produce marks at regular intervals. 3. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technology that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more powerful components. 4. The flash memory disks are supposed to replace the floppy disks. 5. Both the commands and the numbers to be processed are constantly being taken out of and put into memory.
1. The instruction counter register provides the address register of the next instruction to be executed. 2. To convert inputs into outputs is the sense of computer processing. 3. We use the term data processing system to include the resources that are used to accomplish the processing of data. 4. It performs arithmetic and logical operations on data to convert them into useful information. 5. A series of the instructions to be followed by the computer is likely to be stored in the computer memory.
1. The lower consumption makes it quite possible to use a simple battery to maintain the security of supply for several weeks. 2. The first microprocessors were said to be developed as a branch of pocket calculator development. 3. He knew it to be designed by a computer system architect. 4. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and microcomputers. 5. The specific functions of internal storage are to hold all the data to be processed and to store intermediate and final results of processing.
1. The most common use of the visual display terminal is to display alphanumeric (буквенно-цифровой) data, that is, character data. 2. A control unit enables the ALU to perform the required operations. 3. Computer-oriented data processing systems are not designed to imitate manual systems. 4. He finds the CPU in digital computers to be divided into two functional units (CU and ALU). 5. Computer memory is shown to be able to retain very large numbers of symbol combinations without forgetting or changing any detail.