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Task 1. Discuss on the given situation. (Time for preparation- 3 min., time for answering- 1 min)
Imagine that you are an engineer-ecologist who works in an ecological department. Now discuss how we can keep our city clean.
1. What do you know about ecological problems in your country?
2. What does the Nature give to a person?
3. What should we do to protect the environment?
Task 2. Speak on the given topic “Do you think water will become cleaner or more polluted in your area in the future?”(Time for preparation- 4 min, time for answering- 2 min) - 3%.
READING (10 min)
Task 1. Read the text and translate the 2d paragraph of the text. (Time for preparation-5 min., time for answering- 2 min.)
The art of architecture and civil engineering
Architecture is the art and the technique of building, employed to fulfill the practical and expressive requirements of civilized people. Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for building produces architecture. It is necessary in all but the simplest cultures; without it, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements; with it, he has not only a defense against the natural environment but also the benefits of a human environment, a prerequisite for and a symbol of the development of civilized institutions.The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities; (2) the stability and permanence of the work's construction; and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its form.
Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. Civil engineering, considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines, encompasses many specialties. The major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering.Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching.Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or industrial plants. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites, mines, and oil and gas exploration and production sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Nowadays in Kazakhstan prepared many professional specialists in the field of civil engineering, architecture and design.