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With low buildings the variety of possible shapes is much greater than with taller buildings. In addition to the familiar box shapes, which is also used in very tall buildings, low buildings may use cathedral-like forms, vault, or domes. A simple single-story structure might consist of a reinforced-concrete slab laid directly on the ground , exterior manor walls supported by the slab (or by a spread footing cast continuously around the perimeter of the building ), and a roof. For low building, the use of interior columns between masonry load-bearing walls is still the most common construction method.
Spaced columns supported by the slab or by individual spread footing may be used, however; in that case the exterior walls can be supported by or hung between the columns. If the roof span is short, abutting planking made of wood, steel, concrete, or other material can be used to form the roof structure. Each structural material has a particular weight-to-strength ratio, cost and durability. As a general rule, the greater the roof span, the more complicated the structure supporting the roof becomes and the narrower the range of suitable materials. Depending on the length of the span, the roof may have one-way framing beams or two- way framing (beams supported on larger girders spanning the largest dimension). Trusses can be substituted for either method. Trusses, which can be less than 30 cm (12 in) or more than 9 m (30ft) deep, are formed by assembling tension and compression members in various triangular patterns.
Task 2. Read the text and write а suitable heading to each paragraph (Time for preparation – 2 min., for answer – 1 min).
Task 1. Write an essay to the given situation. Write at least 80 words. (Time for preparation – 8 min., for answer – 2 min)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of being bilingual, trilingual, understanding foreign words without dictionary.
LISTENING (10 min)
Task 1. Listen to the text[T.18]–1.5 min. and give T(true) and F(False) answers. (Time for preparation-5 min., time for answering- 1 min)
Task 2. Retell the main idea of the listened text (Time for preparation-2 min., time for answering-2 min.).