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Дополнительные тексты/диалоги. XIV. Прочитайте и переведите текст
XIV. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выпишите и выучите незнакомые слова.
One of the most important tasks a manager performs is decision making. This may be defined as the process of choosing a course of action (when alternatives are available) to solve a problem. The steps listed below provide a simplified framework of the ideal decision-making process:
motivated; supervise — supervision, supervisor — supervising,
XI. 1. established; 2. achieved; 3. position; 4. stages; 5. overall; 6. goal;
7. team; 8. alterations.
XIII. 1. D; 2. B; 3. D; 4. C; 5. D; 6. B; 7. C; 8. C; 9. D; 10. B; 11. C;
12. A; 13. D; 14. C; 15. B; 16. B; 17. A; 18. B; 19. A; 20. С
The ability to implement the decision-making process is often determined by environmental factors rather than the steps in some 'ideal' model. Decisions are frequently influenced more by the environment and structure of the organization than by the method itself. The process of decision making may, therefore, be examined in light of environmental factors.
A number of factors may change the ideal decision-making process. The amount of flexibility within an organization and the available resources are often limiting factors. Another organizational factor is the importance of the decision being made in relation to other problems and responsibilities of management.
Three other factors also influence the decision -making process. They are: time, creativity, and risk. The amount of time available to make a decision for a given problem is often determined by the environment, not the management. The risk associated with a particular course of action may be lessened by use of a group rather than an individual. As a rule, groups make better solutions than individuals.