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Adverbial clauses of place.
An adverbial clause of place shows the place of the action expressed in the principal clause. Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by the conjunctions where and wherever (где бы ни, куда бы ни).
...I am quite comfortable where I am. (Wilde)
I looked where she pointed. (Collins)
...the street singers and players were making their nightly pilgrimage, pausing,
wherever they saw a lighted window or a dark figure on a balcony. (Hichens)
N o t e. — One should not confuse the conjunction where introducing
adverbial clauses of place with the adverb where introducing subject clauses,
predicative clauses, object clauses, and attributive relative clauses.
Deronda placed himself where he could see her... (Eliot) (ADVERBIAL
CLAUSE OF PLACE)
This must be where my sister lives. This is where she came for a temporary
lodging, soon after father’s death. (Dickens) (PREDICATIVE CLAUSE)
Artois wondered where they were going. (Hichens)(OBJECT CLAUSE)
He turned immediately towards the hearth where Silas Marner sat lulling the
child. (Eliot) (ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSE)
Adverbial clauses of cause.
An adverbial clause of cause (reason) shows the cause of, the action expressed in the principal clause. Adverbial clauses of cause are introduced by the conjunctions as, because, since, for fear (that); in official style they may also be introduced by the conjunctions on the ground that, for the reason that and some others.
As he had a liking for the spot, he seldom let a week pass without paying it a
Letters were infrequent in his world and not very welcome because more
often than not they contained bad news. (Priestley)
Since he had a certain talent for composition, his English master encouraged
him to write little pieces... for the college magazine. (Cronin)
He is suspicious and jealous for fear anyone else might want to share in his
Adverbial clauses of purpose.
Adverbial clauses of purpose state the purpose of the action expressed in the principal clause. They are introduced by the conjunctions that, in order that, so that, lest (чтобы не) and some others.
She kept her back to the window that he might not see her rising colour.
Wounds sometimes must be opened in order that they may be healed.
I crouched against the wall of the gallery so that I should not be seen. (Du
...he made all these exclamations in a carefully suppressed voice, lest the valet
should overhear anything. (Dickens)