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§ 1. A compoundsentence is a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. A clauseis part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own.

In a compound sentence the clauses may be connected:

(a) syndetically, i. e. by means of coordinating conjunctions (and, or, else, but, etc.) or conjunctive adverbs (otherwise, however, nevertheless, yet, still, therefore, etc.).


The darkness was thinning, butthe street was still dimly lighted. (Lindsay)

He knew there were excuses for his father, yethe felt sick at heart. (Cronln)


(b) asyndetically, i. e. without a conjunction or conjunctive adverb.


The rain fell softly, the house was quiet. (Collins)

The month was July, the morning fine, the glass-door stood ajar, through it

played a fresh breeze... (Ch. Bronte)

He uttered no other words of greeting; there was too strong a rush of mutual

consciousness. (Eliot)


§ 2. We can distinguish the following types of coordination:

1. Copulative coordination (соединительная связь), expressed by the conjunctions and, nor, neither ... nor, not only ... but (also). With the help of these conjunctions the statement expressed in one clause is simply added to that expressed in another.


It was a nice little place andMr. and Mrs. Witla were rather proud of it.


Mr. Home did not lift his eyes from his breakfast-plate for about two minutes,

nordid he speak. (Ch. Bronte)

Not onlydid he speak more correctly, buthe spoke more easily, and there

were many new words in his vocabulary. (London)


2. Disjunctive coordination(разделительная связь) expressed by the conjunctions or, else, or else, either... or, and the conjunctive adverb otherwise. By these a choice is offered between the statements expressed in two clauses.


He knew it to be nonsense orit would have frightened him. (Galsworthy)

Don’t come near me with that look else I’ll knock you down. (Eliot)

...don’t fret, and don’t expect too much of him, or else he will feel you to be

troublesome... (Ch. Bronte)

...eitherour union must be consecrated and, sealed by marriage or it cannot

exist. (Ch. Bronte)

A painter has to be forbidding, Dad, otherwise people would think he was

cadging. (Galsworthy)


3. Adversative coordination(противительная связь) expressed by the conjunctions but, while,1 whereas and the conjunctive adverbs nevertheless, still, yet. These are conjunctions and adverbs connecting two clauses contrasting in meaning.


1 The conjunction while is not always coordinating. It may be a subordinating conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of time.



The room was dark, butthe street was lighter because of its lamps. (Dickens)

He had a glass eye which remained stationary, whilethe other eye looked at

Reinhardt. (Heym)

The old school-room was now a sitting room... whereasone of the old

nurseries was now the modern school-room. (Trollope)

I was not unhappy, not much afraid, yetI wept. (Ch. Bronte)


4. Causative-consecutive coordination (причинно-следственная связь) expressed by the conjunctions for, so and the conjunctive adverbs therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence.

For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. Therefore, so, consequently, hence, accordingly introduce coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result.2


2 Cause, consequence and result may also be expressed by subordinate clauses, introduced by subordinating conjunctions.


There was something amiss with Mr. Lightwood, forhe was strangely grave

and looked ill. (Dickens)

After all, the two of them belonged to the same trade, sotalk was easy and

happy between them. (Priestley)

Hers (Lillian’s) was not a soul that ever loved passionately, henceshe could

not suffer passionately. (Dreiser)


N o t e. — There are cases when the conjunction for expresses relations

approaching those of subordination, i. e. when it introduces a clause showing

the reason of the action expressed in the preceding clause. In these cases the

conjunction for is very close in meaning to the conjunction because.


She (Lillian) was not helpless, forshe had money of her own. (Dreiser)


But even here for is not a subordinating conjunction, as the connection between the clause it introduces and the preceding clause is loose: a certain fact is stated and then, as it were on second thought, another, statement with a causal meaning is added.



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