Главная страница Случайная страница
АвтомобилиАстрономияБиологияГеографияДом и садДругие языкиДругоеИнформатикаИсторияКультураЛитератураЛогикаМатематикаМедицинаМеталлургияМеханикаОбразованиеОхрана трудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПсихологияРелигияРиторикаСоциологияСпортСтроительствоТехнологияТуризмФизикаФилософияФинансыХимияЧерчениеЭкологияЭкономикаЭлектроника
The detached object.
The prepositional indirect object is often detached.
She does not change — except her hair.(Galsworthy)
A silver tray was brought, with German plums. (Galsworthy)
Huckleberry Finn was there, with his dead cat. (Twain)
THE INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS OFTHE SENTENCE
§ 40. The independent elements of the sentence are words arid word-groups which are not grammatically dependent on any part of the sentence.
1. Interjections, such as ah, oh, hurrah, eh, hallo, goodness gracious, good heavens, etc.
Oh, if I only knew what a dreadful thing it is to be clean, I’d never come. (
“Oh gracious me! that innocent Toots,” returned Susan hysterically. (Dickens)
2. Direct address.
Good morning, sweet child! (Douglas)
Don’t be tiresome, Marcellus!(Douglas)
A parenthesis either shows the speaker’s attitude towards the thought expressed in the sentence or connects a given sentence with another one, or summarizes that which is said in the sentence. A parenthesis is connected with the rest of the sentence rather semantically than grammatically. No question can be put to it. Very often it is detached from the rest of the sentence and consequently it is often separated from it by commas or dashes.
He had probablynever occupied a chair with a fuller sense of embarrassment.
To be sure, Morris had treated her badly of late. (Prichard)
Unfortunately,it will be you who will have to explain that to him. (Heym)
But you shouldn’t pay him to-night, anyway,you’re his guest. (Galsworthy)
Besides, you know, I’m a pensioner, anyway. That makes me 65, to begin
Speaking seriously though,Kit... it’s very good and thoughtful, and like you,
to do this. (Dickens)
§ 41. A parenthesiscan be expressed by:
1. Modal words, such as indeed, certainly, assuredly, decidedly, in fact, truly,, naturally, surely, actually, possibly, perhaps, evidently, obviously, maybe.
Evidently,he was not a man, he must be some other kind of animal. (Shaw)
Luckily,poor dear Roger had been spared this dreadful anxiety. (Galsworthy)
2. Adverbs which to a certain extent serve as connectives, such as firstly, secondly, finally, thus, consequently, then, anyway, moreover, besides, still, yet, nevertheless, otherwise, notwithstanding, therefore, etc.
He mightn’t like it. Besides, uncle Soames wants to get back, I suppose.
He was losing money. Furthermore,he had sweated to make the truck
comfortable for them. (Maltz)
3. Prepositional phrases, such as in aword, in truth, in my opinion, in short, by the by, on the one hand, on the contrary, at least, etc.
Everybody has his own problem. Mine is practically worthless, for instance.
By the way, Harry, I have often meant to ask you: is she your mother’s sister
or your father’s? (Shaw)
4. Infinitive and participial phrases, such as to be sure, to tell the truth, to begin with, generally speaking, strictly speaking, etc.
Sarah; my dear, comparatively speaking,you’re safe. (Dickens)
To tell you the truth, I don’t want to go there.
SENTENCES WITH HOMOGENEOUS PARTS
Two or more parts of the sentence having the same function and referring to the same part of the sentence are called homogeneous parts of the sentence. They are linked either by means of coordinating conjunctions or asyndetically.
There can be:
1. Two or more homogeneous subjects to one predicate.
From the edge of the bed came a rippleand whisper.(Wells)
To her extreme relief, her fatherand sistersappeared. (Dashwood)
2. Two or more homogeneous predicates to one subject.
(a) Simple predicates.
That gentleman started, stared, retreated, rubbedhis eyes, staredagain and finally shouted:“Stop, stop!” (Dickens)
(b) A compound verbal modal predicate with homogeneous parts within it.
Thousands of sheets must be printed,dried,cut.(Heym)
(c) A compound verbal aspect predicate with homogeneous parts within it.
First he began to understandand then to speakEnglish.
(d) A compound nominal predicate with several predicatives within it.
The sky was clear,remote,and empty.(Wells)
The above mentioned cases do not cover all possible cases of homogeneous predicates.
3. Two or more attributes, objects, or adverbial modifiers to one part of the sentence.
The unlighted, unusedroom behind the sitting-room seemed to absorb and
even intensify the changing moods of the house. (Bennett) (ATTRIBUTES)
He could imitate other people’s speech,their accent,their mannerisms,
their tone.(Heym) (DIRECT OBJECTS)
He talked of Spain,his sunstroke,Val’s horses,their father’s health.
(Galsworthy) (PREPOSITIONAL INDIRECT OBJECTS)
She extended a slender hand and smiled pleasantlyand naturally.(Wells)
(ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS OF MANNER)
But I saw nothing moving, in earthor sky.(Wells) (ADVERBIAL
MODIFIERS OF PLACE)