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Ways of expressing the object.

The object is expressed by the following parts of speech:

1. A noun in the common case.


We ought to give him a present, too. (Mansfield)


2. A pronoun (personal in the objective case, possessive, defining, reflexive, demonstrative, indefinite).


C o k a n e. Our little discussion has given me quite an appetite.

T r e n c h. It has taken mine away. (Shaw)

“I must do my best for her,” thought Jolyon. (Galsworthy)

You ought to know all about statues and things. (Galsworthy)

What will you do with yourself? (Galsworthy)

“Who gave you that?” he asked. (Bennett)

...she’s alone in the world, and she must have someone to take care of her.



Here we must mention the peculiar use of the pronoun it in the function of an object, similar to its use in the function of the subject. Sometimes the pronoun it is used as a real (notional) object.


She pulled out a cigarette and let it dangle between her lips unlighted.


Она достала сигарету и держала ее во рту, не зажигая.


But sometimes it only introduces a real object expressed by an infinitive or gerundial phrase or by a subordinate clause. In this case it is a formal introductory object which is not translated into Russian. The formal it is characteristic of literary style and is mostly used after certain verbs followed by adjectives (sometimes nouns). Here belong such verbs as to think, to find, to consider, to make etc.


He found itimpossible to utter the next word. (Kahler)

Он почувствовал, что не может произнести больше ни одного слова.

Не made ita point to save so much every week. (London)

Он поставил себе целью каждую неделю откладывать определенную


She made itclear from the beginning that she had come with Bing.


Она с самого начала ясно дала понять, что пришла с Бингом.


3. A substantivized adjective or participle.


June Forsyte always championed the unfortunate.

In old times nomadic tribes when moving to another place left the dying



4. An infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction.


The sergeant ordered his men to stop.

When he saw someone come toward them, he avoided him neatly. (Sanborn)

The old woman held the child tight and waited for the storm to pass.



5. A gerund, a gerundial phrase, or a gerundial construction.


Could they prevent flying in war-time? (Galsworthy)

I remember seeing you at the opening of the Transport workers summer club.


I don’t like him going away with Lord Illingworth. (Wilde)


6. Any part of speech used as a quotation.


Through the door in the hall leading to the basement he called “Hsst!” several

times... (Galsworthy)


7. A prepositional phrase with a noun or a gerund.


Several times he had sought for a suitable opportunity to disclose his

exciting secret. (Bennett)

They all approved of his not being beaten by that cousin of his. (Galsworthy)

Do you object to my going away for a month?

Improving a husband! No. I shall insist upon my husband improving me,or

else we part. (Ch. Bronte)


8. A group of words which is one part of the sentence, i. e. a syntactically indivisible group.


But it was only Mrs. Bunting who asked for a pinch of salt.(Lindsay)

He found a number of personsin the Morse home. (London)



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