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That most closely matches its meaning.
2 who have the right to
4 on condition
7 given to
Language use: shall and may
8 Read through the text again, noting how shall and may are used.
1Which of the following words most closely matches the meaning of shall in
a) will b) should c) must
2Which of the following words most closely matches the meaning of may in
a) might b) can c) could
In legal documents, the verb shallis used to indicate obligation, to express a
promise or to make a declaration to which the parties involved are legally
bound. This use differs from that in everyday speech, where it is most often
used to make offers (Shall I open the window? ) or to refer to the future
(I shall miss you).
In legal texts, shall usually expresses the meaning of ‘must’ (obligation):
Every notice of the meeting of the shareholders shall state the place, date
or ‘will’ (in the sense of a promise):
The board of directors shallhave the power to enact bylaws.
Shall can also be used to refer to a future action or state, similar to the
future formed with will in everyday speech:
... until two years shallhave expired since such action by vote of such
Another verb commonly found in legal documents is may, which generally
expresses permission, in the sense of ‘can’:
... any bylaw or amendment thereto as adopted by the Board of Directors may
be altered, amended or repealed by a vote of the shareholders.
Speaking: Informal presentation
When speaking briefly about a topic of professional interest, experienced
speakers will organise their thoughts in advance. A simple but effective
structure divides information into three parts:
Similarly, the main points are best limited to three, as this is easy for the
speaker to remember and for the listener to follow.
Notes for a response to the question below might look like this:
A publikt aktiebolag is the closest Swedish equivalent to a public limited company
– most common business form for major international businesses in Sweden.
1 liability: no personal liability
2 management: board of directors (Swedish equivalent, styrelsen) has power to
make decisions; shareholders don’t participate in management
3 needed for formation: memorandum of association (stiftelseurkund) and
articles of association (bolagsordning)
An aktiebolag is similar to a public limited company, with the most significant
difference being that its shares do not need to be listed on an exchange or
9 Which types of companies are there in your jurisdiction? Choose one and describe it as you would for a client from another country. In your description, refer to some of the features given in the UK company table. Tell your client which documents must be filed to complete the formation process. Wherever relevant, compare and contrast your company type with a UK