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What is criminal procedure?
Criminal procedure, also called the criminal process or the criminal justice system, is the mechanism thought which crimes are investigated, the guilt of criminals adjudicated, and punishment imposed. It includes the police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and courts, the practices and procedures observed by them, and legal rules that govern them. In the criminal process an individual is pitted against the government, with all of its resources and authority, and only through the criminal process can the state’s most serious sanctions – imprisonment or even death – be applied.
Criminal law defines what conduct is criminal and prescribes the punishment for criminal conduct. Criminal procedure makes the criminal law work; the sanctions defined by criminal law are only effective because the criminal process can bring the sanctions to bear on individuals who violate the law. At the same time, criminal procedure aims to make sure that criminal sanctions are applied only to those who are guilty, and only through procedures that are recognized as fair. One goal of the criminal process is to punish the guilty, but other goals are to protect the innocent and to ensure that even the guilty are protected from abuse by the government.
Although we talk about “the” criminal process, different systems are in place in each state and in the federal courts.
criminal procedure, process – уголовный процесс
investigate a crime – расследовать преступление
adjudicate – выносить судебное решение
impose punishment – налагать наказание
prosecutor – прокурор, обвинитель
defense attorney – адвокат, защитник
is pitted against – зд. противостоит
criminal conduct – преступное поведение
bear on – зд.накладываются
violate the law – нарушать закон
1. Раскройте скобки в Future Perfect Tense:
1.By the end of the week we (to finish)this work.
2.When we meet next time, I ( to read)this book.
3.By the end of this week my friend (already to write)his report on history.
4. I (to do) my homework by six o`clock tomorrow.
5. My family (to have) supper by the time you call.
6. I (to do) my homework by the time you come.
7. You (to do) this work by next Sunday.
8. How many pages you (to read) by five o`clock?
9. He says that before he leaves he (to visit) his parents.
10. By the time they arrive, we (to finish) working in the garden.
2. Раскройте скобки в Future Perfect Tense:
1. They (to complete) the new house by September.
2. By the end of the month we (to finish) this work.
3. By the time he calls we (to come) home.
4. We (to meet) them at the station by the time he comes.
5. They (to translate) their article by the end of the week.
6. He (to learn) his lesson by tomorrow, if he has not yet begun to study it.
7. This work is so difficult that they (to complete) it in a year`s time.
8. After you finish this book, you (to learn) over a thousand words.
9. By the end of the month the commission (to come) to some decision.
10. If she returnes in July, I won`t see her since I already (to go) to the south.
3. Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. К завтрашнему дню я закончу этот отчет.
2. Мы сделаем эту работу к трем часам дня
3. К 20 июня мы сдадим все экзамены.
4. Строители построят эту школу к 1 сентября.
5.Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, когда мы придем на станцию.
6. Я напишу это письмо к тому времени, как придет секретарь.
7. Я переведу эту статью к понедельнику.