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Answer the following questions to the text. Do it in pairs.

1. What legal process is called international law?

2. Is there any difference between national and international legal systems?

3. What are the precedents of international law rests on?

4. What is the machinery to enforce treaties or conventions?

5. Which rules and principles are observed in international relations?

6. How is international law articulated and created?

7. What community does international law serve?

8. How does international law treat independent states?

9. What elements does international law consist of?

10. What is the object of the rules that constitute international law?

11. What are the 3 branches of international law?

12. When did public international law especially develop, what are its examples?

13. What does public international law deal with, what specific legal field does it include?

14. What are the aims of private international law, what questions does it address?

15. What differs private international law from public international law?

16. What is most important for foreign commerce?

17. What is supranational law, what issue does it concern at present?


6. Use the information in the excerpt that follows to describe where and when contemporary International law has its origin and when an embryonic sovereign state system was established in Europe.

Historically, several systems of international law have existed since antiquity, contemporary international law has its origins in Medieval Europe. Arguably, the most notable historic development was the signing of the Peace of Westphalia 1648 which established an embryonic sovereign state system in Europe. Prior to this agreement, the creation of a sovereign state system had been retarded by the transnational authority of the Pope in spiritual matters and the control of the Holy Roman Emperor in political concerns. In the signature of the peace of Westphalia the Emperor acknowledged restriction of his domination in favour of the territorial autonomy of the various nation states which had previously composed the Empire, whilst simultaneously the treaty recognized the limits of the authority of the Pope.



embryonic sovereign state system система суверенної держави в ембріональному стані
prior to до цього
retard вповільнювати
political concerns політичні питання
acknowledge restrictions признавати обмеження
in favour of на користь
whilst водночас

7. In groups of 3 or 4 consider the following situations, try to refer each of them to a definite legal system.

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