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Indirect statements.




Indirect statements are generally introduced by the verbs to say, to tell, to announce and in official style by the verb to inform.

With the verbs to tell and to inform the person addressed is always mentioned. With the verbs to say and to announce the person addressed may or may not be mentioned. If it is mentioned, the preposition to is used.

Shesaid (to us), "There are interesting magazines in the reading-hall." Shesaid (shetold us) that there were interesting magazines in the reading- hall.
Shesaid (to us), "I am leaving for good." Sheannounced to us that she was leaving for good.
The monitorsaid to us, "There will be a meeting tonight." The monitorinformed us that there would be a meeting that night.

One night the telephone bell rang and he (Cowperwood)in­formed her that he was compelled to remain at the office late. (Dreiser)

The verb to say is used to introduce both direct and indirect speech if the person addressed is not mentioned. If the person is mentioned, the verb to tell is preferable; if the verb to say is used, the preposition to is necessary.

Shesaid she would be back directly. Shesaid, "I'll be back directly."

Yousaid that you would give me back my letter, didn't you? (Wilde)

The Millersaid to his wife that he would go down and see Little Hans. (Wilde)

 

The verb to tell is used to introduce indirect speech only; the person addressed must be mentioned.

Shesaid to us, "I've received an in­teresting letter." Shetold us she had received an in­teresting letter.

Note 1. The verb to tell is used without the person addressed being mentioned in sentences as The book tells of the life of Negroes, also in the expressions to tell a lie, to tell the truth, to tell a story.

Note 2. The verb to speak never introduces indirect speech because it is never followed by an object clause (it can only be followed by an object clause with a preposition).

Therefore the sentence 'Он говорил, что любит музыку' should be rendered in the following way: He said he was fond of music.

Note 3. It should be noted that the verb to speak cannot take a direct ob­ject, unless it is the name of a language or the noun truth in the expression to speak the truth. 'Он говорил много интересного' should be rendered in the following way: He said many interesting things.

An emphatic statement tinged with emotion is often introduced by the verb to declare.

Shesaid, "It's the dullest book I've ever read." Shedeclared it was the dullest book she had ever read.  
  The innkeeperdeclared that he really wanted to go to Oakbourne. (Eliot)   Other verbs are also used to introduce statements. According to the character of the statement, the verbs to promise, to remark, to remind, to assure, to admit, to deny etc. are frequently used.  
Hesaid to me, " I hope you have not forgotten that there will be a meeting tonight." Hereminded me that there would be a meeting that night.  
Hesaid, "The text is rather difficult." Heremarked that the text was rather difficult.  
Hesaid, "I did speak to her about that." Headmitted having spoken to her about that.
Hesaid, "I never spoke to her." Hedenied having spoken to her.
The childsaid to his mother, "I'll never disobey you again." The childpromised his mother never to disobey her again.
Shesaid to them, "I'll certainly come in time." Sheassured them that she would come in time.
       

I spoke to the station-master and also to the innkeeper of the village. Both of themassured me that he (my friend) had gone for a voyage round the world. (Conan Doyle)




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