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The Infinitive. § 26. The infinitive developed from the verbal noun, which in course о time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties




§ 26. The infinitive developed from the verbal noun, which in course о time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. Thus in Modern English the infinitive, like the participle and the gerund, has a double nature, nominal and verbal.

1.The nominal character of the infinitive is manifested in its syn­tactic functions. The infinitive can be used:

(a) as the subject of a sentence.

To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy)

(b) as a predicative.

Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the night. (Hardy)

(c) as an object.

I have never learnt to read or write. (Collins)

2. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive are as follows:

(a) the infinitive of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

He... began to feel some curiosity... (Eliot)

(b) the infinitive can be modified by an adverb.

I cannot write so quickly.

(c) the infinitive has tense and aspect distinctions; the infinitive of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.

In Modern English the infinitive has the following forms:

  Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing

 

§ 27. The tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive.

Like the tense distinctions of all verbals those of the infinitive № not absolute but relative.

1. The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future.

I am glad to meet you. (Dreiser)

I was glad to see Mr. Paul. (Ch. Bronte)

Mr. Forsyte will be very glad to see you. (Galsworthy)

2. The Continuous Infinitive also denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb, but it is an action in progress. Thus the continuous infinitive is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form, expressing both time relations and the manner in which the action is presented.

They happened, at the moment, to be standing near a small con­servatory at the end of the garden. (Collins) — В этот момент они как раз стояли около небольшой оранжереи в конце сада.

3. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to the action ex­pressed by the finite verb.

"I'm glad to have seen you," he said. (Dreiser) — «Я рад, что повидал вас», — сказал он.

An intimate friend is said to have dined with him that day. (Hardy) — Говорят, что в этот день у него обедал его близкий ДРУГ.

After such verbs as to mean, to expect, to intend, to hope used in the Past Indefinite, the Perfect Infinitive shows that the hope or intention was not carried out.



I meant to have gone there. — Я собирался пойти туда (но не пошел).

I meant to have given you five shillings this morning for a Christ­mas-box, Sam. I'll give it you this afternoon, Sam. (Dickens) — Я хотел подарить вам пять шиллингов на рождество, Сэм; я подарю их вам сегодня, Сэм.

The same meaning can be conveyed by the Past Perfect of the finite v°rb followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.

I had meant to go there.

He had meant to marry me. (Eliot) — Он имел намерение же­ниться на мне.

Some English grammarians prefer the latter construction.

 

Note. The idea, however, is often expressed in the following way:

I meant to go there, but never did.

(On the use of the Perfect Infinitive with modal verbs see Chapter VII, Modal Verbs.)

 

4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb. It is not only a fence form, but also an aspect form.

For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam. (Jerome) — Дней десять мы, казалось, питались только холодным мясом, печеньем и хлебом с вареньем.

 

§ 28. The voice distinctions of the infinitive.

The infinitive of transitive verbs has special forms for the Active and the Passive Voice:

It is so glorious to love and to be loved... (Stone) — Так пре­красно любить и быть любимым.

In sentences with the construction there is the infinitive of some verbs can be active or passive without any change in the meaning:



There's no time to lose. (Dreiser) There is no time to be lost. (Eliot) There is nothing to fear (to be feared).

§ 29. The use of the infinitive without the particle to (the bare infini­tive).

In Modern English the infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to• In Old English to was a preposition used with the infinitive in the dative case to indicate purpose (to writenne meant 'in order to write'). Later on to was re-interpreted as the formal sign of the infinitive and cant to be used not only to denote purpose but in other cases as well. Still there are cases when the so-called bare infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to) is used. They are as follows:

1. After auxiliary verbs.

I don't understand the meaning of this passage. We shall go there at once.

2. After modal verbs except the verb ought.

If one cannot have what one loves, one must love what one has. (Wilson)

(On the use of the bare infinitive with the verbs dare and need see Chapter VII, Modal Verbs.)

3. After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel, etc.

In a few minutes they heard him ascend the ladder to his own room. (Hardy) — Через несколько минут они услышали, что он поднимается по лестнице в свою комнату.

I never saw you look so well before. (Hardy) — Я никогда не видел, чтобы вы так хорошо выглядели.

I felt my heart jump. (Heym) — Я почувствовал, что у меня ёкнуло сердце.

Note. The verb to be after the verb to feel is used with the particle to:

I felt this to be very true. (Dickens) — Я чувствовал, что это совершенно верно.

 

4. After the verb to let.

Let us be the best friends in the world! (Dickens)

5. After the verb to make in the meaning of'заставлять' and the verb to have in the meaning of'заставлять, допускать, велеть'.

What makes you think so? (Carter) — Что заставляет вас так думать?

I... had them take my baggage. (Hemingway) — Я... велел им взять мой багаж.

The verb to have in the meaning of'допускать' is chiefly used after the modal verbs will and would in negative sentences.

I will not have you call him Daniel any more. (Trollope) — Я не допущу, чтобы вы продолжали называть его Даниэлем. I would not have you think that I am selfish. (Trollope) — Я не допущу, чтобы вы считали меня эгоистом.

 

6. After the verb to know when its meaning approaches that of t0 see, to observe (the verb to know never has this meaning in the Present Indefinite).

I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders (Shaw) — Я так часто замечала, что перемена лекарства творит чудеса.

In this case, however, the particle to is sometimes used:

I have never known her to weep before. (Cronin) — Я никогда раньше не видел, чтобы она плакала.

Note. After the verbs to hear, to see, to make and to know in the Passive Voice the to-Infinitive is used.

He was heard to mention your name several times. — Слышали, как он несколько раз упомянул ваше имя. They were seen to leave the house early in the morning. — Ви­дели, что они рано утром вышли из дома. The child was made to obey. — Ребенка заставили слушать­ся.

Sir Pitt Crawley was never known to give away a shilling or to do a good action. — Никто никогда не видел, чтобы сэр Пип Кроули дал кому-нибудь шиллинг или сделал доброе дело.

7. After the verb to bid.

I bowed and waited, thinking she would bid me take a seat. (E. Bront§) — Я поклонился и подождал, думая, что она пред­ложит мне сесть.

The verb to bid is obsolete and is not used in colloquial speech.

8. After the expressions had better; would rather; would sooner; can­not but, nothing butf cannot choose but.

You had better go to bed and leave the patient to me. (Shaw) Вы бы лучше легли спать и оставили пациента на моем попечении.

I would rather not speak upon the subject. (Hardy) — Я бы пред* почел не говорить на эту тему.

I cannot but think so. (Trollope) — Я не могу не думать так.

There was nothing left for him to do but watch and wait. — Единственное, что ему оставалось, — это наблюдать и ждать.

She does nothing but make scenes from morning till night. (Shaw) — Она только и делает, что устраивает сцены с утра до ночи.

I looked long at that picture, and could not choose but look. (Ch. Bronte) — Я долго смотрела на эту картину и не могла не смотреть на нее.

Had better; would rather; to do nothing but belong to colloquial English, whereas cannot but and cannot choose but are characteristic of elevated style.

9. In sentences of a special type (infinitive sentences) beginning with why.

Why not come and talk to her yourself? (Reade) — Почему бы вам самой не прийти поговорить с ней?

The particle to is often used without the infinitive if it is easily understood from the context.

He and his three men could not defend Rollingen even if they wanted to. (Heym) — Он и трое его солдат не могли бы обо­ронять Роллинген, даже если бы захотели.

The particle to may be separated from the infinitive by an adverb; this is the so-called split infinitive.

He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy) — Он был, однако, не в состоянии долго молчать.

It could be used in colloquial English.

Well, you ought to at least try.

As soon as I get the word, I'm going to really hurry.

 

§ 30. The functions of the infinitive in the sentence.

The infinitive can be used in different syntactic functions. A single lr*finitive occurs but seldom: in most cases we find an infinitive phrase, e. an infinitive with one or several accompanying words.

1. The infinitive as a subject.

To doubt, under the circumstances, is almost to insult. (Ch. ВгоМё) — Сомневаться при таких обстоятельствах — это почти означает нанести оскорбление.

То acquire knowledge and to acquire it unceasingly,is thefirst duty of the artist. (Thurston) - Приобретать знания, и при­обретать их непрерывно — вот первый долг художника.

Even to think of it gave him ineffable torture. (Bennett) Одна мысль об этом причиняла ему невыразимые страдания.

То be recognized, greeted by some local personage afforded her a joy which was very great. (Cronin) — Когда ее узнавал и приветствовал какой-нибудь видный местный житель, она испытывала большую радость.

From these examples we can see that the infinitive as a subject can be rendered in Russian by an infinitive, by a noun, or by a clause.

Though the infinitive as the subject sometimes precedes the predi­cate, cases when it follows the predicate are far more common; with the infinitive in the latter position, the sentence opens with the introductory it, which serves as an introductory subject. The introductory it is not translated into Russian.

it is useless to discuss the question. (Eliot) — Бесполезно обсуждать этот вопрос.

It was pleasant to be driving a car again. (Braine) — Было приятно снова вести машину.

The infinitive as a predicative.

My intention is to get into parliament. (Trollope) — Моя цель — пройти в парламент.

 

The infinitive can also be used as part of a predicative.

The abode of Mrs. Betty was not easy to find. (Dickens) — Жи­лище миссис Бетти было нелегко найти.

 

3. The infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate.

(а)With modal verbs, modal expressions, and verbs express­ing modality the infinitive forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We must not leave him by himself any longer. (Dickens)

The train was to leave at midnight. (Hemingway) ...

I intend to lead a better life in the future. (Wilde)

(b)With verbs denoting the beginning, duration, or end of an action

Imprisonment began to tell upon him. (Dickens)

Before daylight it started to drizzle. (Hemingway)

Clare continued to observe her. (Hardy)

... they gradually ceased to talk. (Twain)

(For detailed treatment of the compound verbal predicate see Chapter XV, § 16, 17.)

4. The infinitive as an object.

Leila had learned to dance at boarding school. (Mansfield)

After the verbs to allow, to order; to ask, to beg, to request, to implore, # teach, to instruct we often find two objects, one of which is expressed by an infinitive.

After waiting some time, Mrs. Clements... ordered the cabman to drive back to her lodgings. (Collins) He asked me to walk in. (Collins)

And the curate does not teach you to read and to write then? (E. Bronte)

The infinitive used as an object can be preceded by the introductory object it. The introductory object is not translated into Russian.

He found it utterly impossible to leave the spot. (Hardy) — Он считал совершенно невозможным покинуть это место.

5. The infinitive as part of a complex object.

I never saw you act this way before. (Dreiser) — Я никогда раньше не видел, чтобы вы так поступали.

(A detailed treatment of the infinitive used as part of a complex object is given in §32.)

6. The infinitive as an attribute.

The use of the infinitive as an attribute is far more extensive in English than in Russian: in Russian it modifies only abstract nouns, whereas in English it modifies both abstract and class nouns, indefi­nite pronouns (somebody, something, anybody, anything, etc.), ordinal numerals and the adjective last.

The infinitive as an attribute is rendered in Russian by an infinitive Hiefly after abstract nouns), by a subordinate clause or by a finite verb serving as the predicate of a simple sentence (after ordinal numerals and the adjective last).

I have not had time to examine this room yet. (Conan Doyle) ^ У меня еще не было времени осмотреть эту комнату. Bathsheba was not a woman... to suffer in silence. (Hardy) ^ Батшеба была не такая женщина, которая стала бы страдать молча.

I have nobody to say a kind word to me. (Trollope) — У меня нет никого, кто сказал бы мне доброе слово. Не was the first to offer his hand to the Russians. (Heym) — On первый протянул руку русским.

When his engine broke down, it was the last to be repaired. (Heym) — Когда его машина сломалась, ее починили пос­ледней.

The infinitive used as an attribute often has a modal significance - it expresses an action thought of as obligatory or possible.

I've got my wife and little boy to look after. (Dreiser) — У меня есть жена и ребенок, о которых я должен заботиться.

There must be a lot of things in this world to make you very un­happy. (Thurston) — В этом мире, должно быть, много такого, что может сделать вас несчастным.

Tess was no insignificant creature to toy with and dismiss. (Hardy) — Тэсс была не такое незначительное существо, с которым можно поиграть и бросить.

Sometimes the infinitive used as an attribute implies a more or less prominent idea of purpose.

Here is a nice book to read before going to bed. — Вот книга, которую хорошо почитать перед сном.

Here is a charming little cottage to spend the summer in. — Вот очаровательный коттедж, в котором можно хорошо провести лето.

... he had no courage to face danger. (Dreiser) — У него не хватало мужества взглянуть в лицо опасности.

There was no time now to think — there was only time to give the medicine. (Collins) — Теперь не было времени думать — ос­тавалось время только для того, чтобы дать лекарство.

 

7. The infinitive as an adverbial modifier.

(a) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of purpose.

Laws were not made to be broken, laws were made to stay within. (Heym) — Законы были созданы не для того, чтобы их нарушать, а для того, чтобы им подчиняться.

To pacify her, I held the window ajar a few seconds. (E. Bront§) — Чтобы успокоить ее, я на несколько секунд приоткрыла окно.

 

The infinitive as an adverbial modifier of purpose can be introduced by in order and so as.

Sometimes you retreat in order to advance. (Heym) — Иногда отступают для того, чтобы вновь перейти в наступление.

Soames put on his coat so as not to be cold. (Galsworthy) — Соме надел пальто, чтобы не мерзнуть.

(b)The infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of result. This chiefly occurs after adjectives modified by the adverbs enough and too.

His eyes were sharp enough to look after his own interest. (Heym) — Глаза у него были достаточно зоркие, чтобы поза­ботиться о собственной выгоде.

I was too busy to see anyone. (Wilson) — Я был так занят, что не мог ни с кем встречаться.

The infinitive as an adverbial modifier of result is also to be found in sentences of the following type:

He was so weak as to be unable to work. — Он был так слаб, что не мог работать.

Mr. Rokesmith has been so polite as to place his sitting-room at our disposal today. (Dickens) — Мистер Роксмит был настолько любезен, что отдал на сегодня свою гостиную в наше распоряжение.

And he is such a fool as to think that his idle chatter can influ­ence others. (Trollope) — И он такой дурак, что думает, что его пустая болтовня может на кого-нибудь повлиять.

As the above examples show the result expressed by the infinitive is often negative.

(c)The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of comparison (manner); in most cases with an additional meaning of purpose. In this Unction it is introduced by the conjunction as if or as though.

She nervously moved her hand towards his lips as if to stop him... (Dickens) — Она нервно протянула руку к его губам, как будто хотела остановить его.

(d)The infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.

She was driven away, never to revisit this neighbourhood (E. Bronte) — Она была вынуждена уехать и больше не вернулась в эти места.

I am sorry to have raised your expectations, Mr. Blake, only to disappoint them. (Collins) — Мне очень жаль, что я пробудИл в вас надежду, мистер Блейк, только для того, чтобы затем отнять ее.

Note. Some grammarians maintain that in sentences of this type the infinitive performs the function of an adverbial modifier of result (con­sequence).

8. The infinitive as parenthesis.

Well, to cut a long story short, they thought it would be more economical to live at the villa. (Maugham) — Короче говоря, они решили, что будет дешевле жить на вилле. Не was rude, to say the least of it. — Он был груб, чтобы не сказать больше.

То put it mildly, he was not up to the mark. — Мягко выражаясь, он был не на высоте.

То speak the truth, I have been a little troubled, but it is over. (Dickens) — По правде говоря, я был несколько встревожен, но теперь это прошло.

Не brought with him a collection of Indian curios, to say nothing of an independent fortune and several slaves. (Dreiser) — Он привез с собой коллекцию индийских художественных ве­щей, не говоря уже о значительном состоянии и нескольких рабах.

§31. Infinitive constructions.

In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the infinitive:

1. the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction;

2. the Subjective Infinitive Construction;

3. the for-to-Infinitive Construction.

4.

§ 32. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

The Objective with the Infinitive is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object.

In translating the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction into Russian we nearly always use a subordinate clause.

He's a wonderful teacher and I've never seen him lose his temper or get angry about anything. (Wilson) — Он замеча­тельный учитель, и я никогда не видел, чтобы он вышел из себя или рассердился из-за чего-нибудь.

However, sometimes a sentence containing the Objective-with-the- Infinitive Construction is rendered by a simple sentence.

... the bombings at night made the old walls shake to their foundations. (Heym) — От ночных бомбежек старые стены содрогались до самого основания (бомбежки заставляли стены содрогаться).

 

THE USE OF THE OBJECTIVE-WITH-THE-INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observey to notice, etc.

I haven't heard anyone call me. (Wilde) — Я не слышал, чтобы кто-нибудь меня звал.

I saw Brown enter the room. (Braine) — Я видел, как Браун вошел в комнату.

I felt the blood rush into my cheeks, and then leave them again. (Collins) — Я почувствовал, как кровь прилила к моим щекам и затем снова отхлынула от них.

After verbs of sense perception only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II.

I saw the fire slowly conquered. (Collins) — Я видел, как пожар постепенно потушили.

If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

He saw Fleur coming. (Galsworthy)

Note 1. The verb to see is followed by a clause and not by the Objec­tive-with-the-Infinitive Construction when it is not really a verb of sense perception, i. e. when it means 'to understand'.

I saw that he did not realize the danger. — Я видел (понимал) что он не сознает опасности.

After the verbs to see and to notice the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is not used with the verb to be; a subordinate clause is used in such cases.

I saw that he was pale.

N о t e 2. When the verb to hear is not a verb of sense perception, i. e. when it means 'to learn', 'to be told', a clause or a gerund (and not the Objective-with-the-Infinitive) is used.

I hear that he left for the South (of his having left for the South). - Я слышал (мне сказали), что он уехал на юг.

2. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting mental activity, such as to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc.

After verbs of mental activity in the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction the verb to be is generally used. (This restriction does not apply to the verb to expect.) The use of this construction after most verbs of mental activity is more characteristic of literary than of col­loquial style.

I know you to be the most honest, spotless creature that ever lived. (Hardy) — Я знаю, что вы самое честное и безупречное существо из всех, когда-либо живших на свете.

I believe him to have no conscience at all. (Hardy) — Я считаю, что у него совершенно нет совести.

If you suppose that boy to be friendless, you deceive yourself (Dickens) — Если вы предполагаете, что у этого мальчика нет друзей, вы ошибаетесь.

Everybody expected her to marry Pete. (Caine) — Все ожи­дали, что она выйдет замуж за Пита.

After verbs of mental activity the Perfect Infinitive is used but seldom.

The doctor found his heart to have stopped two hours before (Hardy) — Доктор установил, что его сердце перестало биться два часа тому назад.

Note. With the verbs to think, to consider; to find the same idea can be expressed without an infinitive.

Boldwood thought her beautiful. (Hardy)

She found the subject rather interesting.(Dickens)

You consider yourself an impressive person,eh? (Shaw)

3. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

The surgeon pronounced the wound to be a slight one. — Врач сказал, что рана легкая.

She declared him to be the most disobedient child in exis­tence. — Она заявила, что это самый непослушный ребенок на свете.

4.The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting wish and intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose (in the meaning of'хотеть').

I want you to come and dine with me. (Dickens) — Я хочу, чтобы вы пришли пообедать со мной.

I particularly wished those books to be returned tonight. (Dickens) — Я очень хотел, чтобы эти книги были возвращены сегодня.

She desired me to follow her upstairs. (Ch. ВгоМё) — Она велела, чтобы я пошла за ней наверх.

I did not mean you to learn the poem by heart. — Я не имел в виду, чтобы вы выучили стихотворение наизусть.

Не intended me to go with him to India. (Ch. ВгоМё) — Он хотел, чтобы я поехала с ним в Индию.

I don't choose you to go by yourself to an hotel. (Collins) — Я не хочу, чтобы вы одна жили в гостинице.

5. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs and expressions denoting feeling and emotion: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear; etc.

I dislike you to talk like that. — Я не люблю, когда вы так говорите.

I hate him to be flogged. (E. ВгоМё) — Я терпеть не могу, когда его бьют.

I cannot bear you to speak of that. (Eliot) — Я не могу выно­сить, когда вы говорите об этом.

6.The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting order and permission: to order; to allow, to suffer; to have, etc

Here we find the Objective with the Infinitive only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive. This restriction does not apply to the verbs to suffer and to have.

Mr. Merdle ordered his carriage to be ready early in the morn­ing. (Dickens) — Мистер Мердль приказал, чтобы экипаж был готов рано утром.

She... had never allowed the name of John Gordon to pass her lips. (Trollope) — Она никогда не позволяла себе произносить имя Джона Гордона.

Mr. Dombey suffered Florence to play with Paul. — Мистер Домби неохотно разрешил (позволил скрепя сердце) Фло­ренс играть с Полем.

She suffered Mr. Franklin to lead her back into the room. (Collins) — Она позволила мистеру Франклину отвести себя обратно в комнату.

Miss Jemima could not suffer Becky to leave the Academy without a present. — Мисс Джемайма не могла допустить, чтобы Бекки уехала из пансиона без подарка.

I won't have you speak like it, dear Tess! (Hardy) — Я не могу допустить, чтобы вы так говорили, милая Тэсс!

From these examples we see that the verb to suffer; when followed by the Objective with the Infinitive, is rendered in affirmative sentences by неохотно разрешить, позволить (скрепя сердце). In negative sentences it is rendered by допускать. The verb to have denotes permission only in negative sentences; it is very close in meaning to the verb to suffer and is translated in the same way.

If the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a living being and the infinitive is active we find two direct objects.

He ordered Alderson to perfect his plan.(Dreiser)

They only allow me to write one letter in three months. (Dreiser)

 

7. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting compulsion: to make (in the meaning of'заставить')' to cause (in the meaning of'заставить', 'распорядиться'), to get (in the meaning of'добиться'), to have (in the meaning of'заставить: сказать чтобы').

Light steps in the gravel made him turn his head. (London) — Легкие шаги по гравию заставили его повернуть голову.

The noise caused her to awake. — Or шума она проснулась (шум заставил ее проснуться).

She caused a telegram to be sent to him.(Galsworthy) – Онараспорядилась, чтобы ему послали телеграмму.

I cannot get her to finish her lessons.(А. ВгоМё) — Я не могудобиться, чтобы она приготовила уроки.

Mr. Dalrymple had the drayman bring in the soap.(Dreiser) —Мистер Далримпл велел возчику внести мыло в дом.

8. Though the infinitive as a rule is not used with verbs requir­ing prepositions, the Objective with the Infinitive is widely used with the preposition for (see the /ог-fo-Infinitive Construction used in the function of a complex object, § 34). Occasionally it occurs with the preposition on or upon (after the verb to rely):

I rely on you to come in time. — Я рассчитываю, что вы при­дете вовремя.

I rely upon you not to go over to the opposition. (Dickens) — Я рассчитываю, что вы не перейдете на сторону противника.

The gerund, however, is also possible here.

I rely on your coming in time. — Я рассчитываю, что вы при­дете вовремя.

 

§ 33. The Subjective Infinitive Construction.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction (traditionally called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction) is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case.

The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.

Edith is said to resemble me. (Dickens) — Говорят, что Эдит похожа на меня.

 

THE USE OF THE SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTION

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the following groups of verbs in the Passive Voice:

1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.

Mr. Bob Sawyer was heard to laugh heartily. (Dickens Слышно было, как весело смеется Боб Сойер. The rider was seen to disappear in the distance. — Видно было, как всадник скрылся вдали.

If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

Tess's father was heard approaching at that moment. (Har­dy) — В этот момент они услышали, что подходит отец Тэсс.

2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider; to know, to expect, to believe, to suppose.

He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser) — Его счи­тали честным и добрым человеком.

My father... was considered by many to be a great man. (Gow and D'Usseau) — Многие считали моего отца незаурядным человеком.

Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune. (Galsworthy) — Было известно, что Филипп Босн­ии — молодой человек без состояния.

I know that Priam Farll is supposed to have been buried in Westminster Abbey. (Bennett) — Я знаю, что считают (пред­полагают), будто бы Приам Фарл похоронен в Вестминстер­ском Аббатстве.

The manuscript is believed to have been written in the 15th century. — Полагают, что эта рукопись написана в XV веке.

3. With the verb to make.

Little Abrahamwas aroused... and made to put on his clothes.. (Hardy) — Маленького Эбрахама разбудили и заставили одеться.

4. With the verbs to say and to report.

The gods had given Irene dark-brown eyes and golden hair, which is said to be the mark of a weak character. (Galsworthy) — Бо­ги наделили Ирэн темно-карими глазами и золотистыми волосами, что, как говорят, является признаком слабости характера

From these examples we can see that in translating sentences con­taining the Subjective Infinitive Construction after verbs in the Passive

Voice a complex sentence is mostly used: its principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called 'indefinite personal' (неопре­деленно-личное предложение).

After verbs in the Passive Voice the Subjective Infinitive Construc­tion is more characteristic of literary than of colloquial style, except with the verbs to suppose, to expect, to make; with these verbs the Subjective Infinitive can be found both in fiction and in colloquial language.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the word-groups to be likely, to be sure, and to be certain.

The parish is not likely to quarrel with him for the right to keep the child. (Eliot) — Приход вряд ли будет оспаривать у него право содержать этого ребенка.

But he is sure to marry her. (Hardy) — Но он бесспорно (не­сомненно) женится на ней.

This fire is certain to produce a panic in the morning. (Drei­ser) — Этот пожар бесспорно (несомненно) вызовет утром панику.

Sentences of this kind are rendered in Russian by a simple sentence with a modal word.

Note the difference between:

He is sure to come. — Он обязательно придет. He is sure of coming. — Он уверен, что он придет.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the following pairs of synonyms: to seem and to appear; to happen and to chance (the latter is literary); to prove and to turn out.

Theyseemed to have quite forgotten him already. (Hardy) — Они, казалось (по-видимому), уже совершенно забыли его.Her eyesappeared always to gaze beyond, and far beyond. (E. Bronte) — Ее глаза, казалось, всегда были устремлены куда-то далеко-далеко.

Mrs. Cowperwood, in spite of the difference in their years, ap­peared to be a fit mate for him at this time. (Dreiser) — Не­смотря на разницу в возрасте, миссис Каупервуд в этот период его жизни, по-видимому (казалось), была для него подходящей женой.

Only yesterday we happened to see Scames Forsyte. (Gals­worthy) — Только вчера мы случайно встретили Сомса Фор­сайта.

By 11 o'clock her motherhad chanced to look into her room (Dreiser) — Около 11 часов мать случайно заглянула к ней в комнату.

The experiment proved to be a failure. (Collins) — Опыт ока­зался неудачным.

They all turned out to be good fighters. (Gow and D'Usseau) ^ Все они оказались хорошими бойцами.

N о t е. The infinitive in sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construc­tion cannot refer to a future action except with verbs and word-groups whose meaning allows of it: to expect, to be sure (certain), to be likely.

We are sure to come at the heart of the matter. (Dickens) - Мы обязательно доберемся до сути дела. Не is expected to give us an answer tomorrow. — Ожидают, что он даст нам ответ завтра.

§ 34. The fог-to-Infinitive Construction.

The for-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition for.

In translating this construction into Russian a subordinate clause or an infinitive is used.

The construction can have different functions in the sentence.[5] It can be:

1. Subject (often with the introductory it).

For me to ask would be treason, and for me to be told would be treason. (Wilson) — Если бы я спросила, это было бы предательством; если бы мне сказали, это было бы преда­тельством.

I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this way. (Dreiser) — Я часто думаю, что стыдно людям тратить на это так много денег.

2. Predicative.


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