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(Ступені порівняння прикметників та прислівників)

1.Formation of Degrees of Comparison


Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree  
adjective adjective + er the + adjective + est
long big small longer bigger smaller the longest the biggest the smallest
easy narrow clever simple easier narrower cleverer simpler the easiest the narrowest the cleverest the simplest    
adjective more + adjective the most + adjective
beautiful handsome more beautiful more handsome the most beautiful the most handsome


2.Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (and Adverbs)


Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree
good well better (than) the best
bad badly worse (than) the worst
much many more (than) the most
little less (than) the least


Adjectives which have two Forms of Comparison

Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree
old older elder the oldest the eldest
late   later latter the latest the last
near   nearer the nearest the next
far farther further the farthest the furthest

4. as ... as,(такий … як)

This room is as large as that one.
These flowers are as beautiful as mine.

5. not so ... as(не такий … як)


Odessa is not so big as Kyiv.

6. the more…, the better… чим …, тим

The longer he studied, the more he liked his future speciality.



  cardinal ordinal   cardinal ordinal   cardinal ordinal
one first eleven eleventh ten tenth
two second twelve twelfth twenty twentieth
three third thirteen thirteenth thirty thirtieth
four fourth fourteen fourteenth forty fortieth
five fifth fifteen fifteenth fifty fiftieth
six sixth sixteen sixteenth sixty sixtieth
seven seventh seventeen seventeenth seventy seventieth
eight eighth eighteen eighteenth eighty eightieth
nine ninth nineteen nineteenth ninety ninetieth


hundred two hundred_ but: hundreds of students
1,000 thousand 2,000 two thousand_ but: thousands of fighters
1,000,000 million 2000,000 two million_ but: millions of protesters
1,000,000,000 billion      
three hundred and twenty five
five hundred andseven
225,000 two hundred and twenty five thousand

Fractional Numerals


1/2 a half
1/3 a third, one third
1/4 a quarter, one quarter; a fourth, one fourth
1/10 a tenth, one tenth
1/100 a (one) hundredth
3/4 three quarters, three fourths
1/1234 a (one) thousand two hundred and thirty fourth



o[ou], nought [no:t], zero [ziərou]
0.1 o point one, zero point one, point one, nought point one
0.01 o point o one, zero point zero one, point zero one
0.25 point two five, nought point two five,
2.35 two point three five
0.001 o point o o one, zero point zero zero one,






Simple Present   V (Vs) never, seldom, rarely, sometimes, often, as a rule, usually, always, every day (week …)   I live in Kyiv. I go to the University every day. I speak English. The water boils at 100º C. If he comes he will help us.
Past II (Ved) yesterday, the day before yesterday, last year (month …), two weeks ago, in 1998 when I was young I lived in Kyiv two years ago. Hewent to school five days a weeklast year. Shespoke English very well at the age of ten. I visited my friend yesterday.  
Future will +V tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week (month …), in a week, in 2030 I will live in Kyiv next three years. Hewill go to the University every daynext year. Shewill speak Englishvery well in a month. I will visit my friend tomorrow.
Continuous Present   am, is, are + V-ing now, right now, at the moment   I am working on my graduation thesis, so I can’t go out with you.
Past was, were + V-ing at 3 o’clock yesterday, from 5 till 7 yesterday, the whole day yesterday, when he came back (past)   I was working on my graduation thesisthe whole day yesterday.
Future will be + V-ing at 3 o’clock tomorrow, from 5 till 7 tomorrow, the whole day tomorrow, when he comes back (fut)   I will be working on my graduation thesisthe whole day tomorrow.
Perfect Present   have, has +III (V-ed) just, ever, never, already, yet, since, for, this year, recently, lately, I have just seen him. Have you ever been abroad? I haveneverbeen abroad. Has he passed his exam yet? Hehasalreadypassedhis exam.
Past had + III (V-ed) before another action in the past by 7 o’clock yesterday,   Before he came we had already finished with the testing. As soon as I had passed my driving test I bought a car.
Future will have + III (V-ed) by 7 o’clock tomorrow, by the end of the month, by the time she comes   I will have done this by the end of the month.
Perfect Continuous Present   have, has +been V-ing since, for activity in progress which began in the past and is still continuing now   I have been working since nine o’clock this morning. He has been waiting for two hours.
Past had + been V-ing activity in progresstill the moment when smth happened in the past   We had been working for two hours when our friend joined us.
Future will have + been V-ing activity in progresstill the moment when smth happens in future We will have been working in the laboratory for a few hours when you arrive.

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