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Let us see why metals have come to play so large a part in man’s activities. Wood and stone are both older in use, yet to a considerable extent they have been supplanted by the metals. The cause of the increasing use of metals is to be found in their characteristic properties, such as: strength, or ability to support weight without bending or breaking; combined with toughness, or ability to bend rather than break under a sudden blow; resistance to atmospheric destruction; and malleability, or ability to be formed into desired shapes. Malleability of a metal is also known as its ability to deform permanently under compression without rupture. It is this property which allows the hammering and rolling of metals into thin sheets.

Metals can be cast into varied and intricate shapes weighing from a few ounces to many tons. Their plasticity, or ability to deform without rupture, makes them safe to use in all types of structures, and also allows their formation into required shapes through forging and other operations.

Metals also possess the important property of being weldable. Of all the engineering materials only metals are truly weldable and repairable. Other materials used in engineering constructions, including glass, stone, and wood, usually are destroyed when the structure is no longer usable. On the other hand, an unusable bridge, ship, or boiler made of metal usually is cut into easily handled sections, put in a furnace, remelted, cast, and finally worked in the making of a new ship, bridge, or boiler.

All of this represents a remarkable combination of properties possessed by no other class of materials. Some metals also possess additional, special properties, two of which are power to conduct electric current and the ability to be magnetized. The selection of the proper metal or alloy for a given use is an important part of the practice of metallurgy. Because iron and steel are used in larger quantities than any of the other metals, it is common practice to divide metallurgical materials into ferrous, or iron-bearing, and nonferrous, or those containing no iron, or only small proportions of iron.


2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:


діяльність людини, бути заміщеним металом, супротив, згинання, поломка, ковкість, атмосферне руйнування, складні форми, піч, декілька унцій, проводити електричний струм, з іншого боку, сплав, спеціальні властивості, залізомісткий.


3. Make word combinations from the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:

1. considerable a. constructions
2. to support b. electric current
3. atmospheric c. sheet
4. thin d. shape
5. intricate e. materials
6. engineering f. destruction
7. to conduct g. extent
8. metallurgical h. weight


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