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Write the adjectives in brackets either in the Comparative or Superlative Degree.


1. The (simple) material in ancient times was wool.

2. Metal became (important) than wool.

3. Gold is (good) electrical conductor than aluminum.

4. Steel is (hard) than copper.

5. Iron is still the (important) metal today.

6. The (large) use of metal started during the Second World War.


5. Answer the following questions:

1. What material has helped man most?

2. What metals did man discover first? Why?

3. What was an important step in the use of metals?

4. When was copper firs used?

5. What metal is the most widely used?

6. What process can be used to modify the properties of iron?

7. How many basic metallurgical arts are there?

Section 4

1. Read and translate the following text:



There are many applications of non-ferrous metals in the unalloyed state, but in most cases, some alloying element is added. The solids obtained when two or more metals are mixed in the molten condition and allowed to solidify are called alloys. Each constituent of an alloy is called a component. Alloys may be binary (two-component), ternary (three-component), etc. The ability of various metals to form alloys differs greatly.

Alloys are usually prepared, simply by melting two or more metals together and then this liquid mixture is allowed to cool and solidify. If no chemical reaction occurs between or among the constituents, the resulting alloy is a simple mixture. In some cases there is a definite reaction and the resulting alloy is a chemical compound. In a third type the degree of combination of the metals is such that the product can be described best by calling it a solid solution. The enormous importance of alloys lies in the fact that by combining metals in this fashion almost any desired set of properties can be obtained.

The non-ferrous metals may be mixed in various proportions to form many alloys, chief among them being brasses, bronzes, and aluminium alloys. The alloying of copper with other elements increases the strength of the metal in some cases and improves the anti-corrosive and anti-friction properties in others. There is a wide range of use for non-ferrous alloys. Their nature differs greatly from that of the ferrous metals. By varying the proportions of non-ferrous metals, alloys that are hard or soft, weak or strong, can be produced. When alloying, the metal with the highest melting point should be melted first, then the one with the next highest melting point, and so on until all of the metals that are to make up the alloy are melted together. For example, to make a red-brass alloy, the copper is melted first, then the zinc, then the lead, and at last the tin. As soon as the mixture is hot enough to run the castings, it should be taken out of the furnace, otherwise the zinc, tin and lead may burn away.

Alloys of copper with a number of elements including tin, aluminium, manganese, iron and beryllium are called bronzes. It is an alloy containing primarily copper and tin, but other elements may be added to the alloy to increase its properties such as hardness and resistance to wear.

The most common bronzes are known as straight bronze, phosphor bronze, and manganese bronze. Straight bronze is usually a mixture of copper and tin, but there are many bronzes that contain zinc and lead, especially the cheap mixtures. Phosphor bronze may be made by adding a little phosphorus to the mixture. If phosphor tin is used and alloyed with the copper, better result will be obtained than if the phosphorus is mixed with the copper. Manganese bronze alloys are usually made by using both copper that contains from 5 to 15 per cent of manganese and copper that contains no manganese.

Alloys of copper and zinc are called brasses. Brasses are yellowish or reddish alloys of copper and zinc in different proportions. We observe some brasses contain about 60% copper and 40% zinc, but some brasses contain as high as 90% copper with only 10 per cent zinc. An addition of tin makes brasses stronger. Scientists suggest brasses to be treated without heating them as they are very ductile. They are corrosion-resistant and are used for making musical instruments, bearings, etc.

Aluminium is used extensively for castings that are to be light in weight, light in colour, or that must not rust. Since aluminium is too soft for making castings, it is necessary to mix some other metals with it. The metals that alloy freely with aluminium are copper, tin, and iron. Usually, where aluminium alloys are made, the aluminium predominates. Alloys of copper and aluminium which contain from 5 to 10 per cent of the latter are called aluminium bronzes. They have a fine yellow colour resembling gold and are used in making imitation jewellery and statuary.

All non-ferrous castings will take a high polish and will not rust as easily as the ferrous metals, a characteristic that makes them especially useful in wet or damp places. Non-ferrous metals are rather expensive and therefore nowadays scientists try to replace them by some ferrous alloys of lower coat possessing the same properties.


2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

затвердіти, сплав, можливість, плавлення, складові, антикорозійні властивості, антифрикційний, лиття, піч, ржавіти, оброблятися, олово.

3. Make up word combinations from the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:


1. molten a. point
2. to increase b. metal
3. anti-corrosive c. bronze
4. to run d. alloy
5. melting e. strength
6. straight f. condition
7. phosphor g. bronze
8. non-ferrous h. bronze
9. red-brass i. properties
10. manganese j. the casting


4. Write the following pronouns in the Nominative case:

him, us, her, them, you, me.


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