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Препозитивно-атрибутивные словосочетания могут переводиться:
а) прилагательным с существительным (power station — электрическая станция; emergency meeting — экстренное заседание; split hair accuracy — высочайшая точность; close-unit fraternity — тесное братство);
б) существительным в родительном падеже (crime prevention - предотвращение преступности; wage rise — повышение заработной платы; budget increase — увеличение бюджета; space programme — программа космических исследований; asset acquisition - приобретение активов; treasure island — остров сокровищ; job offer — предложение работы; opinion poll — опрос общественного мнения);
в) существительным с предлогом (open-air museum — музей под открытым небом; mountain war — война в горах);
г) с перестановкой членов атрибутивной группы (language violence — ненормативная лексика, administrative efficiency — умелое руководство).
Данный прием используется в тех случаях, когда дословный перевод невозможен из-за отсутствия в русском языке соответствующего существительного или прилагательного либо невозможности их сочетаемости друг с другом;
д) переводом одного из членов атрибутивного словосочетания при помощи группы слов. При этом могут вводиться дополнительные компоненты, а структура словосочетания может меняться: (nuclear dumping site — площадка для захоронения ядерных отходов, solar power station — электростанция, использующая энергию солнца).
В тех случаях, когда в русском языке нет непосредственного соответствия языковым единицам английского языка, применяется калькирование — полностью воспроизводятся все составные части словосочетания: information technologies — информационные технологии; shadow cabinet — теневой кабинет.
Перевод групп с внутренней предикацией часто вызывает необходимость выделять определение в отдельное предложение:
A few months later she issued a marry-me-or-else ultimatum. — Несколько месяцев спустя она предъявила ультиматум: «Или ты женишься, или я...».
Если такие словосочетания не несут особой стилистической нагрузки, они могут переводиться теми же способами, которые используются и при переводе обычных атрибутивных групп: a life-and-death necessity — вопрос жизни и смерти; an all-night coffee shop — ночное кафе.
1. Переведите следующие атрибутивные словосочетания.
Green house effect; safety violations; education strategy; low-salt wholefood; referendum ballot; waste disposal; media coverage; a three-nation tour; high-income developed countries; national security adviser; waste reduction measures; energy-efficient heating systems; environmental assessment project; young offenders institutions.
2. Переведите данные цепочки слов на русский язык.
treaty negotiations break
ban treaty negotiations break
test ban treaty negotiations break
weapon test ban treaty negotiations break
nuclear weapon test ban treaty negotiations break
Geneva nuclear weapon test ban treaty negotiations break
Three-Power Geneva nuclear weapon test ban treaty negotiations break
3. Переведите следующие словосочетания.
Transition period; a five-time winner; anti-corruption measures; cruise missiles; non-waste technology; high-speed Internet; consumer demand; nuclear chain reaction; single mandate constituency; consumption level; alcohol consumption; crime rate; wildlife habitat; strategic arms cuts; healthcare officials; national health standards; prison building programme; soil fertility restoration; corruption charges; two-thirds majority; pollution control equipment; per capita food production; sister company; brain drain; military presence; money laundering; shuttle diplomacy; computer virus; party platform; good will mission; transplant woman; three-men orchestra; nuclear proliferation; terrorist suspect; private school parents; three-nation resolution; ozone-protection measures; free-market approach; chemical weapons facilities; suicide truck bombers.
4. Проанализируйте смысловые связи между компонентами словосочетаний и переведите их на русский язык.
Fly-tipping, ocean clumping, mineral-rich country, terror financing, oil summit, fast-food chain, wage restraint, road safety officer, appointment board, market research company, home-based workforce, digital-lock briefcase, emergency spending, social security reforms, prescription drugs, a single-parent household, on-line shopping service, information-driven society, group and pair work, shadow health minister, political prisoner status, pesticide residue level, primary school age children, pollution control expendures, solid waste incinerator, road accident death rate, long-range nuclear warheads, top foreign policy priorities, Organization of African Unity peace plan, European voter apathy problem, air-pollution control equipment, dual-wage-earner family.
5. Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык.
Страны, обладающие ядерным оружием; оружие массового поражения; процедура отбора; сотрудник таможенной службы; прекращение гонки вооружений; план разработки рыночных реформ; приоритеты в области информационной политики; скандал, связанный с получением взятки; система социальной защиты; активисты, выступающие в защиту прав животных; снижение объема торговли нефтью; план реформирования, состоящий из шести пунктов; комитет по регулированию банковских кредитов; резолюция Совета Безопасности Организации Объединенных Наций; программа по сохранению окружающей среды; система изоляции радиоактивных отходов; план создания энергосберегающих нагревательных систем; меры по предотвращению аварий на дорогах; уровень безработицы среди выпускников университетов.
6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на препозитивно-атрибутивные словосочетания.
1. The rain which had persisted through the previous few days had now cleared up, and the sky was a pale and cloudless blue. Not an umbrella day. 2. The Prime Minister said he would not let peace negations be disrupted by the current wave of Islamic suicide bombings. 3. There were rumours of splits in the Cabinet and the Prime Minister's popularity had reached an all-time low. 4. Thousands of Chinese-flagged merchant ships now cross the ocean each year, giving China plenty of justification for increasing naval presence. 5. Franklin Roosevelt, the Depression-era USA president, once said the Dominican republic could become the breadbasket of the Caribbean. 6. Taliban militants have used a heat-seeking surface-to-air missile to attack a Western aircraft over Afghanistan. 7. Sushi chefs yesterday claimed that a European Union health and safety directive would ruin the quality of their food. 8. Germany and Britain improve church attendance over the Christmas period. 9. Industry executives expect job opportunities for home-based workers to grow over the next five years. 10. He has already had two kidney transplants: one from his sister, who made a live donation, and another from a deceased donor. Neither procedure worked, and so he is back on the kidney transplant waiting list. 11. Road deaths for the first quarter of this year have nearly doubled compared with the same period in 1991. 12. Even now, while the time is running so desperately short, the Government is afraid of a green backlash to make firm commitments. 13. A year after the sudden death of sitcom star John Ritter, his family has filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the hospital where he was treated. 14. The district attorney dropped all cruelty-to-animals charges for lack of evidence. 15. Teenage violence is a problem seen everywhere from minor school fights to headline crime stories. 16. Designers and manufacturers underlined her ability to mix expensive designer clothes with off-the-peg items, often from high-street stores. 17. He motioned him to a blue vinyl-covered sofa which along with a wood-pressed coffee table apparently constituted the conference area of his office. 18. Less memorable but equally unpopular has been the threat of shutting village schools in the name of administrative efficiency. 19. His prominent brown eyes were fixed in an unwavering stare upon Frank's tall elegance. 20. The decline in eurozone labour productivity growth has come to a halt. 21. George Bush stated that he wanted to abolish soft-money contributions from corporations and trade unions. 22. The article rightly concludes that Europe needs more flexible labour-market laws and more crossborder barking mergers. 23. The country is not keeping up with demand for computer-graduates. 24. Edwin smoked cigarettes and Alan was a pipe man. 25. Home shopping is now very much de rigeur with the cash-rich, time-poor mothers who make up Boden's target. 26. One man was killed and another injured in a drive-by shooting in Manchester. 27. In giving him a crushing parliamentary majority voters are handing him an exceptionally strong mandate for a tax-cutting, welfare tightening, business-friendly programme. 28. The two parties, at odds over practically everything else, were committed at least to a land-for-peace deal with Syria. 29. 'Fathers' rights' groups complain of an anti-father bias in the family court. 30. All over the rich world, there are parents who leave the childproof lids off medicines because they find them so fiddly, and office workers so irritated by self-closing fire doors that they prop them open. 31. America's intelligence people say Iran was trying to build the atomic bomb until 2003 but probably stopped. 32. One of the early successes in the green boom is Sun Flower; a solar-energy firm, which now has a stockmarket value of nearly $6 billion. 33. It is important to understand media consumption within the context of everyday life. 34. Today, thousands of children are members of households where only one of their birth parents — usually the mother — lives, and most have only limited contact with the other non-resident parent, usually the father. 35. The former weather girl has become one of the best-known faces on British television today. 36. As President of the International Equestrian Federation she is planning to concentrate on some particular aspects, such as horse care, rider safety, international judging standards and compliance with regulations.
7. Переведите следующие тексты.
The Role of the UN
The UN today is both more and less than its founders anticipated. It is less because, from the close of World War II to the end of the 1980s, the rivalry between the United States and the USSR exposed the weakness of great-power unanimity in matters of peace and security. It is more because the rapid breakup of colonial empires from the 1940s to the 1970s created a void in the structure of international relations that the UN, in many areas, was able to fill.
Even during the period of superpower rivalry, the UN helped ease East-West tensions. Through its peacekeeping operations, for example, it was able to insulate certain areas of tension from direct great-power intervention. The UN also established several committees on disarmament and was involved in negotiating treaties to ban nuclear weapons in outer space and the development of biological weapons. The International Atomic Energy Agency has helped to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons by inspecting nuclear installations to monitor their use. Major arms-control measures, however, such as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963), the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1968), the Strategic Arms Limitation talks (SALT) of 1972 and 1979, and the Strategic Arms Reduction treaties (START) of 1991 and 1993 were achieved through direct negotiations between the super powers.
Beyond providing peacekeeping forces, the UN has played a wider role in the transition to statehood in a few critical areas. It has been a major forum through which newly independent states have begun to participate in international relations, giving them opportunities to represent their interests outside their immediate regions, to join coalitions of nations with similar interests, and to escape the limited relationships of their earlier colonial connections. One problem facing the UN today is the feeling in some Western nations that it has become an instrument of the developing countries and thus is no longer a viable forum for fruitful negotiations.
The United Nations is not a world government; rather, it is a very flexible instrument through which nations can cooperate to solve their mutual problems. Whether they do cooperate and use the UN creatively depends on how both their governments and their peoples view relations with others and how they envision their place in the future of humankind.
Ethanol and Water
Officials in Tampa, Florida, got a surprise recently when a local firm building the state's first ethanol-production factory put in a request for 400,000 gallons (1.5m litres) a day of city water. The request by Envirofuels would make the facility one of the city's top ten water consumers overnight, and the company plans to double its size. Florida is suffering from a prolonged drought. Rivers and lakes are at record lows and residents wonder where the extra water will come from.
They are not alone. A backlash against the federally financed bio-fuels boom is growing around the country, and "water could be the Achilles heel" of ethanol, said a report by the Minneapolis-based Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.
The number of ethanol factories has almost tripled in the past eight years from 50 to about 140. A further 60 or so are under construction. In 2007 President George Bush signed legislation requiring a fivefold increase in biofuels production, to 36 billion gallons by 2022.
This is controversial for several reasons. There are doubts about how green ethanol really is (some say the production process uses almost as much energy as it produces). Some argue that using farmland for ethanol pushes up food prices internationally (world wheat prices rose 25 per cent this week alone, perhaps as a side-effect of America's ethanol programme). But one of the least-known but biggest worries is ethanol's extravagant use of water.
A typical ethanol factory producing 50m gallons of biofuels a year needs about 500 gallons of water a minute. Most of that goes into the boiling and cooling process, which is similar to making beer. Some water is lost through evaporation in the cooling tower and in waste discharge.
The good news is that ethanol plants are becoming more efficient. They now use about half as much water per gallon of ethanol as they did a decade ago. New technology might be able to halve the amount of water again, says Mike Fatigati, vice president of Delta-T Corp, a Virginia company which has designed a system that does not discharge any waste water. But others are sceptical. Perhaps ethanol just isn't as bio-friendly as it looks.