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Прочитайте и переведите текст. LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME


The absolutism of power in the monarch was typical of legal systems until the time of the Greeks around 300 B.C. Before the Greeks people believed that their laws were given to them by gods, represented by their kings. The Greek system emphasized that law was made by man, . for man, and could be changed by man. Instead of being an instrument of total social control of the whole population by a monarch, the law was to serve peace and prosperity of the people.

In the year of 621 B.C., Draco, Athenian lawgiver, drew up Greece's first written code of laws. This harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death. The word draconian (безжалостный) is still used to describe repressive legal measures.

In 594 B.C. Solon, Athens' lawgiver, repealed Draco's code and published new laws, retaining only Draco's homicide statutes. He revised every statute except that on homicide and made Athenian law more humane. He also retained an ancient Greek tradition — trial by jury. Enslaving debtors was prohibited, along with most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code. Under Solon's law citizens of Athens could be elected to the assembly and courts were established in which citizens could appeal against government decisions.

The Greek ideals were carried over into the Roman system of laws. The Greeks have contributed to the Roman system of laws the concept of «natural law». Actually, natural law was based on the idea that certain basic principles are above the laws of a nation. These principles arise from the nature of people.

As the Roman Empire increased, a set of laws was codified to handle the more sophisticated legal questions of the day. This was done under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (from AD 529 to 565). This collection of laws and legal interpretations was called Corpus Juris Civilis («Body of Civil Law») and also the Justinian Code.

French Emperor Napoleon made some modification of the Justinian Code at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Napoleon Code is still the model for the legal codes governing most of the modern nation-states of Europe today.

1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты для следующих слов и выражений:

Придавать особое значение (подчеркивать), аннулировать (отменять закон), покровительство, естественный закон, суд присяжных, делать рабом, переносить, справляться с, свод законов, Римская империя.


2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What did the ancient Greek system of law emphasize?

2. What was typical of legal systems until the time of the Greeks?

3. What does the word 'draconian' mean and what is the origin of this word?

4. What have the Greeks contributed to the Roman sys­tem of laws?

5. What is the concept of 'natural law'? What is its basic idea?

6. What was Solon? What contribution to ancient law did he make?

Ответьте на вопросы исходя из данных ниже просьб.

Mary, give me the book, please.

1. What is Mary doing?

2. What has she done?

3. Who has given me a book?

4. What did she do a minute ago?

4. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видо-временную форму:

1. She (to begin) her tour 3 months ago.

2. The detective (to investigate) this serious criminal case now.

3. She (to visit) 6 countries.

4. The jury still (to discuss) the verdict.

5. He (to collect) evidence against criminals already.

6. How long you (to investigate) the case?


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