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Прочитайте и переведите текст. Laws fall into two major groups: criminal and civil


Laws fall into two major groups: criminal and civil. Criminal laws regulate public conduct and set out duties owed to society. A criminal case is a legal action brought by the government against a person charged with committing a crime. Criminal laws have penal­ties, and offenders are imprisoned, fined, placed un­der supervision, or punished in some other way. Crim­inal offenses are divided into felonies and misdemean­ors. The penalty for a felony is a term of more than one year in prison. For a misdemeanor, the penalty is a prison term of one year or less. Felonies are more serious crimes such as murder or robbery. Misde­meanors are less serious crimes such as simple assault or minor theft.

Civil laws regulate relations between individuals or groups of individuals. A civil action (lawsuit) can be brought by a person who feels wronged or injured by another person. Courts may award the injured per­son money for the loss, or they may order the person who committed the wrong to make amends in some other way. An example of a civil action is a lawsuit for recovery of damages suffered in an automobile acci-dent. Civil laws regulate many everyday situations, such as marriage, divorce, contracts, real estate, in­surance, consumer protection, and negligence.

Sometimes one action can violate both civil and criminal law. For example, if Joe beats up Bob, he may have to pay Bob's medical bills under civil law and may be charged with the crime of assault under criminal law.


1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты для следующих слов и выражений:

уголовное право, гражданское право, совершать преступление, нарушитель, оштрафовать, помес­тить под наблюдение, уголовное преступление, су-дебно наказуемый проступок, убийство, грабеж, нападение, воровство, возмещать убытки, судебный процесс (тяжба)

2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What two groups of laws do you know?

2. What is a criminal case?

3. How are criminal offenses divided?

4. What crimes are more serious?

5. What is the penalty for a felony for a misde­meanor?

6. Make a list of all the crimes mentioned in the text.

7. What do civil laws regulate?

Ответьте на вопросы исходя из данных ниже просьб.

John, read this article attentively.

  1. What’s John doing?
  2. What has he done?
  3. Who is reading the article?
  4. What did he do a minute ago?


4. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную видо-временную форму:

1. The investigator (to collect) evidence on the case already.

2. The trade delegation (to finish) its work by the end of the week by signing a new treaty.

3. The court still (to examine) all the details of the murder.

4. How long you (to learn) English?

5. The drug smuggler (to give) testimony for an hour already.

6. She (to travel) for 3 months.

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