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PART II




PART II

2013
Міністерство освіти і науки, молоді та спорту України

Національний технічний університет України

«Київський політехнічний інститут»

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА

ТЕХНІЧНОГО СПРЯМУВАННЯ

ЧАСТИНА II

МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ

для студентів 1 курсу інженерно-фізичного факультету

 

Київ 2013


Англійська мова технічного спрямування: Метод. вказівки до практичних занять для студ. 1 курсу інженерно-фізичного ф-ту ЧАСТИНА II / Уклад. Леонова О. М., Нікітіна Н.С. - К.:НТУУ «КПІ», 2012.- 68 с.

 

 

Навчальне видання

 

АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА ТЕХНІЧНОГО СПРЯМУВАННЯ

 

МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ

до практичних занять

для студентів 1 курсу інженерно-фізичного факультету

 

Укладачі: Леонова Олена Миколаївна Нікітіна Наталя Сергіївна  
Відповідальний редактор:   Корсун Ганна Олексіївна


П Е Р Е Д М О В А

Методичні вказівки до практичних занять студентів першого курсу інженерно-фізичного факультету укладені відповідно до існуючої програми.

Методичні вказівки складаються з десяти розділів та додатків. Кожен з розділів містить текст, лексичні вправи, спрямовані на розширення лексичного запасу за даними темами, та лексико-граматичні вправи, спрямовані на розвиток граматичних навичок студентів. У кожному розділі містяться також завдання на розвиток навичок читання, монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, письма. До кожного розділу складено словник, що сприяє засвоєнню студентами матеріалу розділу.

До методичних вказівок включено короткий граматичний довідник у таблицях та англійсько-український словник.

За змістом методичні в призначені для практичних занять студентів першого курсу, немовних спеціальностей, що спеціалізуються у вивченні матеріалознавства, металознавства, металургії. Тематика текстів першої частини має, відповідно до програми, загальнонауковий та загальноосвітній характер, а другої – загальнотехнічний, який є, одночасно, базовим для вивчення англійської мови професійного спрямування для спеціальностей Ливарне виробництво, Металургія та Інженерне матеріалознавство.

.

 


CONTENTS

     
UNIT 1 Metals……………………………………………..………….…..  
     
UNIT 2 Occurrence of Metals………………………………………..……  
     
UNIT 3 Properties of Metals……………………………………………..  
     
UNIT 4 Blast Furnace. Cupola Melting…................................................  
     
UNIT 5 Bessemer Converter………………………………………………  
     
UNIT 6 Open-hearth Furnace……………….……….……………………  
     
UNIT 7 Engineering Materials….…….…………….…………………….  
     
UNIT 8 Ferrous Metals….………………………….……………………..  
     
UNIT 9 Non-ferrous Metals……………………….………………………  
     
UNIT 10 Problem of Engineering Materials………………………………..  
   
Appendix 1.……………….. ………….…………………………………..…  
Appendix 2.…………………………………………………………………..  
   
   

PART II



UNIT 1 METALS  

Task 1. Discuss these questions:

 

What metals do you know?

How many metals can you name in English?

 

Task 2. Read the following text and complete the table:

 

metal use
gold  
silver  
copper  
iron  

One basis of classification of the elements groups them into metals and non-metals. It is with the metals that we shall concern ourselves, considering the group as a whole.

It is now 2,000 years since the time of Julius Caesar and many changes have taken place since that time. Yet, in a sense, many things have remained the same. Steel is still the basic material of armaments, although, it is not used in the manufacture of shields and short swords. Gold, silver, and copper are, as 2,000 years ago, the coinage metals. Bronze is still used for objects intended to resist the corrosive action of the atmosphere, but now it has many competitors. Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages

Knowledge of the metals, of course, has increased, greatly since Caesar’s day. Yet, the average citizen might have difficulty in naming more than twice as many metals as a Roman could. The Roman world knew, at least, copper, lead, gold, silver, tin, iron, mercury, and zinc (in a copper alloy). To this list, the twentieth-century’s man in the street might add aluminum, magnesium, nickel, chromium, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, and one or two others. If he happened to be interested in aeronautics, he might add titanium. Almost certainly, he would be unable to name more than a third of the known metals.



The first metals which were used by primitive man were those that are found free in nature to a comparatively large extent. These are gold, silver, and copper. Tin entered the metal picture when someone discovered, probably accidentally, that if it was mixed with copper the resulting substance was harder. So there came into being the alloy that we call bronze, a material which was so important in the ancient world that its name is given to one of the cultural stages in human development. The Bronze Age began in Egypt around 3,000 before our era and in Europe some 500 or 1,000 years later.

Axe made of iron, dating from swedish Iron Age, found at Gotland, Sweden Since almost no iron exists free in nature, it undoubtedly came into general use somewhat later than those just mentioned. However, the Egyptians and Assyrians made some use of iron a number of centuries before our era. As soon as methods were developed for separating iron from its ores in reasonably large quantities and at fairly low cost, it ceased to be classed as a precious material and began its career as the world’s most valuable metal from the standpoint of actual use.

It is only since the time a man had learnt how to obtain and use metals and their alloys, he has been able to adapt his environment to his needs and desires. The present age is, in fact, the Age of Metals and it is important that we should have some acquaintance with these useful substances. In the ancient times, gold, silver, copper, tin, iron, lead and mercury were known as "The Seven Metals".

One other metal, zinc, has also been known in its role as one of the constituents of the alloy brass. Almost no metals other than these seven or eight were known until the eighteenth century and many that we use today, not until the nineteenth.

Metals are mostly solids at ordinary temperature and have comparatively high melting points with the exception of mercury. They are for the most part good conductors of heat and electricity, and silver is the best in these respects. They can be drawn into fine wires and hammered into thin sheets, characteristics that are called ductility and malleability, respectively. An ounce of gold can be drawn into a wire almost 50 miles long or hammered into a sheet that has an area of between 175 and 200 square feet.

From the point of tonnage produced and used, iron is the world's most common metal, followed in turn by copper, zinc, lead and aluminium.

 

Task 3. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and expressions:  

 

класифікація елементів, озброєння, щит, пересічний громадянин, мідний сплав, кінцева речовина, відокремлення заліза від руди, дорогоцінний метал, знайомство, давні часи, твердий при звичайній температурі, за виключенням ртуті, провідники тепла та електроенергії, тонкі дроти, ковкість.

 

Task 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into Ukrainian:  

to take place, manufacture, to resist, corrosive action, to increase, at least, copper alloy, to be interested in, to a comparatively large extent, to discover, to mix, development, use of iron, separating iron from ore, quantity, low cost, valuable metal, to obtain, constituent, solids, conductor, to draw, fine wires, to hammer, thin sheets.

 

Task 5. Read and memorize the names of the following metals and alloys:  

copper, lead, gold, silver, tin, iron, mercury, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, nickel, chromium, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, titanium, bronze, brass.

 

Task 6. Translate the following groups of words:  

compare – comparison – comparative – comparatively,

conduct – conductor – conduction – conductive – conductivity,

produce – product – production – productivity – productiveness,

class – classify – classification,

separate – separator – separation.

 

Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English:  

1. Сталь залишається основним матеріалом для виготовлення озброєння.

2. Золото, срібло та мідь – метали для виготовлення монет.

3. Бронза використовується для виготовлення предметів, що стійкі до корозії.

4. Золото та срібло знаходяться в природі у вільному стані в порівняно великій кількості, а залізо майже не існує в природі у вільному стані.

5. Цинк є однією з складових латуні.

6.Коли були розроблені методи виділення заліза з руди, воно стало цінним матеріалом.

Task 8. Answer the following questions:  

1. What is the basic classification of the elements?

2. What metals were known in Roman world?

3. What were the first metals used by primitive man?

4. When did tin enter the metal picture?

5. Which name is given to one of the cultural stages in human development?

6. Does iron exist free in nature?

7. When did iron begin its career as the world’s most valuable metal?

8. Are metals solids or liquids?

9. What metal is the world’s most common metal?

Task 9. Write a short composition on the topic “History of metals” describing the chronology of metals coming into use.

 

Words and word combinations to be memorized:

 

  acquaintance знайомство
  to adapt прилаштовуватись
  aeronautics аеронавтика
  brass латунь
  to cease зупиняти, закінчувати
  coinage виробництво монет
  conductor провідник
  corrosive корозійний
  to discover виявляти, розкривати, з’ясовувати
  ductility ковкість, в’язкість
  fine wire тонкі дроти
  hard твердий
  iron залізо
  lead свинець
  malleability ковкість
  melting point точка кипіння
  mercury ртуть
  non-metals неметали
  precious material дорогоцінний матеріал

 

 

  separating відокремлення
  shield щит
  solid тверде тіло, твердий
  standpoint точка зору
  to stab наносити удар, поранити
  substance субстанція, речовина
  tin олово
  tungsten вольфрам
  undoubtedly безумовно

UNIT 2 OCCURRENCE OF METALS  
Task 1. Read the following words and try to guess their meaning: organic, electrolysis, absorption, mineral, metallurgy.  
Task 2. Read about occurrence of metals and fill in the appropriate headings to each abstract.  

Metals occur most commonly as oxides or sulphides in ores. They must be separated from gangue materials such as clay, silica, granite, etc. Nowadays, aluminium, magnesium and sodium have become common due to the development of electrochemical processes for their production. But the most widely used metals are: iron, copper, zinc, tin, lead, mercury, silver and gold.

The most important metal is iron. Iron was used in the earliest times of which we have any historical records. The art of making weapons from iron was known to the Egyptians and Hindoos.

The metal is widely distributed in nature in the form of silicates, oxides, and the sulphide, FeS. The chief ores of the metal are hematite, Fe2O3, limonite, 2Fe2O3-3H2O, magnetite, Fe3O4, and siderite, FeCO3. Iron occurs in plants and animals as a constituent of complex organic compounds. It is present in the haemoglobin of the blood and is involved in this condition in the absorption of oxygen in the lungs.

The naturally occurring materials containing compounds of the metals which may be economically extracted are called ores. The definite chemical compound of the metal in the ore is termed a mineral. The name gangue is applied to the constituents of the ore other than the mineral containing the metal to be extracted.

Iron is obtained by reducing its ores with carbon. The ores contain, in addition to the oxides and carbonate of the metal, small amounts of combined sulphur, phosphorus, and manganese and are mixed with more or less sand and clay. The metals from lithium down to manganese are obtained by electrolysis of melted compounds that conduct an electric current.

The science which treats of the methods used to obtain the metals in the free condition from compounds that occur in nature is called metallurgy.

 

Task 3. Give English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:  

відокремлювати, використовувати, розповсюджуватись, містити, видобувати, застосовувати, відновлювати, змішувати, отримувати, поєднувати (сполучати), плавити, глина, кремній, натрій, електромеханічні властивості, виробництво, свинець, срібло, олово, історичні записи, органічні сполуки, гемоглобін, поглинання кисню, руди, розкислювати руди вуглецем, невелика кількість, проводити електричний струм.

 

Task 4. Translate and memorize the names of some metals, materials and ores:  

clay, silica, granite, aluminium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper, tin, lead, mercury, silver, gold, sulphur, phosphorus, manganese, sand, lithium, oxygen, hematite, limonite, magnetite, siderite, gangue materials, lead, to reduce the ores with carbon, to extract the metal, chemical compound, to make weapon, melted compounds, to conduct an electric current.

 

Task 5. Make up sentences from the proposed parts:  
  1. Ores 2. Mineral 3. Gangue 4. Metallurgy     is /are   a) the definite chemical compound of the metal in the ore. b) the science which treats of the methods used to obtain the metals. c) the constituents of the ore other than the mineral. d) materials containing compounds of the metals which may be economically extracted.
       

 

 

Task 6. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words according to the text ‘Occurrence of metals’. The following words and word combinations may be used:  

ores, an electric current, obtained, absorption, compounds, separated

 

1. Metals occur most commonly as oxides or sulphides in _______.

2. They must be _______ from gangue materials such as clay, silica, granite, etc.

3. Iron occurs in plants and animals as a constituent of complex organic ______.

4. It is present in the haemoglobin of the blood and is involved in this condition in the ________ of oxygen in the lungs.

5. Iron is _______ by reducing its ores with carbon.

6. The metals from lithium down to manganese are obtained by electrolysis of melted compounds that conduct _______.

 

Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English:  

1. Перед використанням, матеріали слід відокремити від пустої породи.

2. На сьогодні багато металів виробляються електрохімічними методами.

3. Залізо залишається найважливішим металом з незапам’ятних часів.

4. Залізо наявне в тваринах та рослинах як складовий компонент більш складних органічних речовин.

5. Щоб отримати залізо нам слід відновити його руду з вуглецем.

6. Металургія це наука про отримання металів різними методами.

 

Task 8. Put the verbs in brackets in proper tense form:  

1. Iron (to find) in the crust only in combination with oxygen or sulfur.

2. Even in the narrow range of concentrations that make up steel, mixtures of carbon and iron (to form) into a number of different structures.

3. Crucible steel is steel that (to melt), with the result that it is more homogeneous than if it had not been.

4. Steel has been easier to obtain and much cheaper, and it (to replace) wrought iron for a multitude of purposes.

5. Copper has its characteristic color because it (to reflect) red and orange light due to its band structure.

6. Copper (to occupy) the same family of the periodic table as silver and gold.

 

Task 9. Answer the following questions:  

1. How do metals occur most commonly?

2. What is the most important metal?

3. When was iron first used?

4. What is the chief ores of the iron?

5. How is iron obtained from the ore?

 

Words and word combinations to be memorized:

 

absorption поглинання, всмоктування
art мистецтво
carbon вуглець
clay глина
constituent компонент
to distribute розповсюджувати
electrochemical process електрохімічний процес
electrolysis електроліз
electric current електричний струм
to extract добувати, отримувати
gangue materials пуста порода
granite граніт
historical records історичні згадки (записи)
to involve залучати, включати в себе

 

lungs легені
metallurgy металургія
to occur залягати
organic compound органічне поєднання
ore руда
oxygen кисень
to reduce 1) зменшувати, 2) відновлювати
sand пісок
silica кварц
to treat обробляти
weapon зброя

 


UNIT 3 PROPERTIES OF METALS    
Task 1. Discuss in your group the properties of metals you know and present your thoughts in a few words.    
Task 2. Make a list of the most important metal properties, and compare it with your partner.    
Task 3. Read the following text and match the terms with their meanings:    
1. hardness a) property that gives an opportunity electricity or heat to travel through or along the material
2. density b) an exact amount of a material
3. conductivity c) the relationship between the mass of something and its size
4. weight d) material having this property is stiff and will not bend
           

The uses of metals are based upon their physical or chemical properties. Metals vary in density, hardness, heat conductivity, electrical conductivity and weight. The metals resemble one another in their general chemical behaviour with other substances, but they differmarkedly in activity.

In considering the chemical properties of metals, the first point which must be mentioned is that they vary widely in degree of chemical activity: some are enormously active and others very inert. In general, metals are chemically combined with one or more other elements and the compounds are known as ores.

The metals vary greatly in density. The lightest is lithium, which has the density of 0.534 and is, therefore, about one-half as heavy as water. The heaviest is osmium (D. 22.48) which is closely relatedto platinum (D. 21.45) in physical and chemical properties. The so-called light metals, of which sodium, potassium, magnesium and aluminium are examples, have a density less than 4; iron, lead, tin, silver, etc. are known as heavy metals.

The metals also vary inhardness, from potassium, which can be molded like wax, to chromium, which will cut glass. The metals and other substances differ in the extent to which they can resist a strain that tends to bring about a permanent change in their form. Hardness is the property to resist deformation under applied load. Hardness is the most important mechanical property of metals. The hardness of metals depends upon the presence of other substances in them and the nature of metal itself.

All substances offer more or less resistance to the flow of an electric current through them. With any given substance, the resistance is determined by its dimensions and the temperature. Metals are the best conductors of heat and electricity.

Task 4. Give English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:  

густина, теплопровідність, бути схожим, ступінь хімічної активності, руда, вдвічі легший за воду, легкі та важкі метали, різнитися, твердість, різати скло, чинити опір деформації, наявність інших речовин, електрострум, найкращі провідники тепла та електроенергії, формувати, призводити до, залежати від, визначатись.

 

Task 5. Translate and memorise the names of some metal properties:  

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