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THE HISTORY OF DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
The term “DESIGN” appeared in our country not long ago. The direct translation of this term from English firstly gave us an approximate meaning of “painting”; but now we can use it also in the meaning of constructing or planning.
In 1907 there was founded an industrial union in Germany, which united industrialists, architects, artists and merchants. Its creation was demanded by economic and esthetic causes in order to win the international market. The founder, an architect German Mutezius, was there as a president of the union “Werkbund” till 1914.
As a goal the union wanted to reorganize the handicraft production into the industrial one and to create some common or ideal samples for manufacturing; they “led a struggle” with extra decoration of goods. Their program was devoted to using and selecting the best ideas and opportunities in art, trade, manufacturing in order to unite the largest industrial representatives. The most important event of that period was the invitation of Peter Berence as an art director to a great Electric Company that produced different electric staff: lamps, motors, tools. As the owner wanted the production to widespread all over the world market, so he was interested in creating a new image of his firm (that was an innovation in promotion of goods of that period).
In 1919 in a little German town Weiniar, there was founded a “Bauhous”– the first institution to train artists for the work in industry. The head of the establishment was Germanic architect Walter Gropius, a former Peter Berence's student. During a very short period “Bauhaus” managed to become a large design-training center.
The first year student had a specialized course to study ceramics, furniture, textile. The study included technical subjects – Werklehre and artistic course -Kunstlehre, also some knowledge in handicraft was necessary for a future designer. The Bauhaus goods differed in design and graphics. Technical training consisted of studying of tools, metal-work technologies and treating, etc. The students were taught all the peculiarities of molding and colour mixing perception. It was known as modern laboratory of industrial goods constructing. Having moved in Dessau the college was given a building containing study-rooms, workshops and a hostel. During the last years of studying the theoretical basis was increased in the study program. But after its Head had left for Russia in 1930 the college was closed.
V. Reread Text I, answer the following questions:
a. How do we understand the meaning of the word “design”?
b. What were the reasons of the industrial union foundation?
c. What was the goal of the industrial union?
d. When and where was the first institution training artists founded?
e. What did the students study in “Bauhaus”?
VI. Match these words and expressions with their meanings and try to memorize them:
1) the meaning of constructing or planning a) лучшие идеи и возможности
2) economic and esthetic causes b) особенности отделки
3) the international market c) смысл построения или
4) the handicraft production d) восприятие смешения цветов
5) common or ideal samples e) экономические и эстетические
6) extra decoration of goods f) продвижение товаров
7) the best ideas and opportunities g) ремесленное производство
8) electric staff h) зд. электроприборы
9) a new image i) новый облик
10) promotion of goods j) международный рынок
11) the peculiarities of molding k) общие или идеальные образцы
12) colour mixing perception l) дополнительное украшение
VII. Look at the way the following words are used in Text I and then circle the relevant part of speech:
meaning (par. 1) participle noun gerund
causes (par. 2) verb noun adjective
ideal (par. 3) verb noun adjective
using (par. 3) participle noun gerund
establishment (par. 4) verb noun adjective
study(par. 5) verb noun adjective
containing (par. 5) participle noun gerund
VIII. Read Text II to find answers to the given questions?