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Независимый причастный оборот.
В этой конструкции (как и в двух других, рассмотренных ранее) обязательно наличие двух компонентов – имени существительного (или местоимения) и причастия (I, II). Особенностью независимого причастного оборота является то, что субъект действия причастия (выраженный существительным или личным местоимением) не совпадает с подлежащим всего предложения.
мест прич.I подл. сказ.
e.g. He being busy, Idecided to come another time.
Так как он был занят, я решил прийти в другой раз.
Элементы оборота имеют между собой такую же логическую связь, как подлежащее и сказуемое. Это дает право при переводе на русский язык передавать независимый причастный оборот предложением.
Таким образом схема перевода может быть представлена следующим образом:
Следует отметить, что независимый причастный оборот может находиться в любом месте английского предложения (в начале, в середине или в конце) и обязательно выделяется запятой (запятыми).
При переводе на русский язык независимый причастный оборот может передаваться тремя способами:
- самостоятельным предложением;
- частью сложносочиненного предложения с союзами а, и, но;
- придаточным предложением.
В последнем случае это могут быть придаточные предложения обстоятельства времени, причины или условия с союзами когда, так как, если, если не (если оборот находится перед основным предложением) или придаточное предложение сопутствующих условий с союзами причем, при этом, тогда как, а, и.
e.g. The conference being appointed, letters of invitation should be sent in good time.
Так как конференция назначена, приглашения следует отправить вовремя.
e.g. Time permitting, we shall discuss two more problems.
Если позволит время, мы обсудим еще две проблемы.
e.g. All the objects arranged in the museum, an exhibition was declared open.
Когда все предметы были размещены в музее, открыли выставку.
e.g. The figure represents an animal, its total length being two and a half inches.
Фигура изображает животное, причем (и) её общая длина составляет 2,5 дюйма.
e.g. There being nothing to wait for , we left the place.
Поскольку ждать было нечего, мы ушли.
Примечание. Независимый причастный оборот может вводиться предлогом with, который при переводе опускается.
e.g. The territory extends for about 150 miles, with a breadth varying from 50 to 100 miles.
Территория простирается примерно на 150 миль, а её ширина составляет от 50 до 100 миль.
Рассмотрим еще несколько примеров.
e.g. Her knowledge of English being insufficient, she failed to understand the article.
a) Ее знания английского были недостаточны. Она не смогла понять статью.
б) Ее знания английского были недостаточны, и она не смогла понять статью.
в) Так как ее знания английского были недостаточны, она не смогла понять статью.
e.g. The concert was followed by dancing, a lot of young people staying for it.
а) После концерта были танцы. Много молодежи осталось потанцевать.
б) После концерта были танцы, и много молодежи осталось потанцевать.
в) После концерта были танцы, причем много молодежи осталось потанцевать.
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте предложения. Назовите, какие из них содержат независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The atmosphere always contains some moisture, the amount varying not only from day to day, but from hour to hour as well. 2. Having lost the key, he couldn’t enter the house. 3. The students answering quickly and well, the exam didn’t last long. 4. Knowing French well, my brother can understand the article without any difficulty. 5. It being late, the house was locked. 6. The total value of exports increased by 19%, with food stuffs and manufactured goods occupying a leading place. 7. Having unloaded the ship, the workers left the port. 8. There being no more problems to discuss, you may be free. 9. Being free, I can visit you tonight. 10. Having been sent an invitation to the party, you are asked to come exactly at 5 o’clock. 11. The tourists were walking around the hall, with the guide explaining the history of the objects exhibited. 12. You will soon master the language, with Miss Dixon teaching it.
Упражнение 2. Составьте из частей А и Б предложения так, чтобы в них был независимый причастный оборот.
Упражнение 3. Замените придаточные предложения независимым причастным оборотом, правильно расположив его относительно основной части предложения.
1. As the text was difficult, we had to listen to it several times. 2. If the weather permits, the expedition will start its work early in the morning. 3. When the lecture started, we stopped talking to each other. 4. It is necessary to check the method as the results of the experiment are negative. 5. If the task is not time-consuming, the group can manage to fulfil it in a day. 6. When the signal was given, the sportsmen ran forward. 7. As it was important to check the results again, the laboratory members decided to stay for the night to do it.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в следующих предложениях независимые причастные обороты и переведите предложения. Дайте несколько вариантов перевода.
1. These tribes supported themselves by hunting, elk being obviously the most valuable game: it provided meat, skin, bones. 2. A university was established at Constantinople in 425, teaching conducted both in Latin and Greek. 3. In such conflicts prisoners are never made, the conquerors preferring the heads of their victims to any ransom that could be offered. 4. In the Celtic regions the population is dispersed, each family living separately with the greater part of its field around it. 5. China was then divided into several kingdoms, each trying to gain the upperhand. 6. With the Romans gone, Britain became a prey to invasions from all sides. 7. The new instrument (the plough) being usually made entirely of wood till the Iron Age, its history can be only inferred from occasional pictures. 8. Salmon, deer, roots and berries are the principal food of natives, these being dried for storage. 9. The Normans became the aristocracy in England at that time and the Saxon the serving class, the former speaking a dialect of the French language, and the latter holding obstinately by their own expressive tongue. 10. By the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries fur had become Russia’s most important single item in foreign and domestic commerce, Russia being prominent in the markets of both Europe and China.
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя независимый причастный оборот.
1. Поскольку вопрос сложный, вам следует просмотреть справочную литературу. 2. Когда занятия закончились, студенты поспешили в буфет. 3. Они решили взять такси, причем расстояние было не очень большим. 4. Если вы будете завтра свободны, мы сможем сходить на выставку, причем завтра она работает последний день. 5. Так как было очень много желающих поработать в архиве, руководителю пришлось организовать три группы студентов. 6. Вы сможете добиться неплохих результатов, при том что вам окажут финансовую поддержку. 7. Когда проверят все статьи, ваша работа будет опубликована наряду с остальными. 8. Преподаватель объяснил студентам цель работы, и они начали работать над планом. 9. Я не мог тебе позвонить. У меня не работал телефон. 10. Так как время поджимает (to press), вам придется ускорить работу над курсовой.
VI. Повторение причастных конструкций
Упражнение. Повторите все причастные конструкции. Найдите их в данных предложениях, назовите конструкции и переведите предложения.
1. This little group reached Chesapeake Bay in May 1607, and founded Jamestown, it being the first permanent English colony in the New World.
2. Merchants who found themselves excluded from old channels of imperial trade began to agitate for reprisals.
3. With servants lacking full political and civil rights, in this clash of wills the advantage lay with the master.
4. There are a few industrial areas where big Asian communities remain closely knit, with many of their people working in local factories.
5. The occasion warranted, the men wore fine broadcloth, the women the latest (or more likely the next-to-latest) fashions.
6. Before long, Zinoviev found his base of power in the Party threatened by Stalin’s growing ambitions.
7. Democrats in the House of Representatives often vote against one another, some agreeing with the President and some not.
8. Among richer people, the pressure on land led to an increase in its value, and to an increase in buying and selling. Landowning widows found themselves courted by land-hungry single men.
9. The war Edward began, later called the Hundred years war, did not finally end until 1453, with the English crown losing all its possessions in France except for Calais, a northern French port.
10. Edward introduced the idea of chivalry into his court. Once, a lady at court accidentally dropped her garter and Edward III noticed some of his courtiers laughing at her.
11. Both Scotland and Wales have for a long time had their nationalist parties, with aims ranging up to the extreme of complete independence.
12. But it is also true that the five kingdoms were often at war, each trying to gain advantage over the other, often with great cruelty.
13. Elizabeth I took more interest in politics than religion. So long as England had its own church, she being at its head, Elizabeth was content.
14. By 1500 there were somewhere between 50 and 60 million of them (Indians), with 1 or 2 million living in what is now the United States.
15. For England it was a glorious moment, but it did not lead to an end of the war with Spain, and England found itself having to spend more than ever on England’s defense.
16. In each case he (the write man) is regarded as clothed in white cloth or paint, as having arrived from the East and as having a beard.
17. The merchant directors of the London Company, with them knowing little or nothing about Virginia, failed to provide the colony with effective guidance.
18. For white Americans found Garrison’s line of argument convincing, and many were outraged by his confrontational tactics.
19. The gluttonous (in the pictures of hell) were having their tongues and middles burned.
20. The Anglican Church under Elizabeth I satisfied most, but not at all, of her subjects. Steadfast Catholics could not accept it, with some leaving England and some practicing their faith in private.
Упражнение 1. Найдите в данных предложениях причастие, определите его форму и функцию в предложении. Назовите причастные конструкции, встречающиеся в предложениях. Переведите предложения.
1. The president, influenced by the fact that the matter came within the jurisdiction of the secretary of the treasury, accepted Hamilton’s argument and signed the bill.
2. In primary schools in UK the first two years, beginning at the age of five, are spent on informal development of expression and ability to concentrate.
3. Stalin embarked on a third revolution, the first two being the February and October revolutions of 1917.
4. The Soviet totalitarian system has sometimes been described as characterized by “permanent revolution”.
5. Most of the significant regional newspapers are “evening” papers, each publishing about four editions between about midday and 5 p.m.
6. In December 1995 new national parliamentary elections were held, followed by two rounds of the presidential election in June and July 1996.
7. Although Scottish bills are passed by Parliament at Westminster, their details are in practice debated only by MPs representing constituencies in Scotland.
8. In 1622 a bloody Indian attack took the lives of 347 colonists. Morale sank, and James I in 1624 revoked the charter, Virginia becoming a royal colony.
9. In the early years of the sixteenth century English thinkers had themselves interested in the work of the Dutch philosopher Erasmus.
10. Thus female abolitionists, driven by the urgencies of conscience, were almost forced to become advocates of women’s rights.
11. Some Puritans – later called Congregationalists – favoured a completely decentralized arrangement, with the members of each church and their chosen minister beholden only to one another.
12. The Venetians also supplied young Slavs, captured or purchased along the nearby Dalmatian coast, to the markets of Egypt and Syria (the word slave originally meant Slav).
13. They (the lords) needed money rather than the services of serfs to buy the expensive oriental luxuries being dangled before their eyes by traders.
14. This decline in economy resulted principally from the terrible losses occasioned by the plague known as the Black Death, which ravaged Europe in the mid-14th century.
15. The routes were being long and complicated, with pirates and highwaymen being a constant threat to the traders.
16. Richard the Hunchback was a bad character. He not only murdered Henry VI while he was a captive, but had his own brother, Clarence, who was imprisoned by Edward IV for conspiracy and died mysteriously, drowned in a butt of malmsey.
17. By the 11th century, Venice had established a thriving trade with Constantinople, shipping large quantities of European foodstuffs to the great metropolis on the Bosporus.
18. The land he had spied was an island in the West Indies, a place distinguished by neither beauty nor size.
19. The feminist Abby Kelley wrote, “Striving to strike the slave’s irons off, we found most surely ourselves manacled”.
20. When Christopher Columbus went ashore bearing the flag of Spanish Castile, he named it San Salvador, or Holy Savior.
21. Settling in Boston, he became an agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and a featured speaker at its public meetings.
22. More radical Protestants stated the Anglican Church resembling much the Church of Rome. They objected to the richly decorated vestments worn by the clergy and to the use of candles, incense, and music in church services, with the emphasis put on reading and analyzing the Bible.
23. The Age of Discovery was in a sense the last Crusade, with its leaders displaying mixed religious and material motives along with a love of adventure.
24. Spurred by the plans for land sales and settlement, Congress drafted a new and more specific frame of territorial government to replace Jefferson’s ordinance of 1784.
25. Having carefully read Marco Polo’s account of his adventures in the service of Kublai Khan, Columbus had decided that these rich lands could be reached by sailing directly west from Europe.
26. (For Europe) Spices such as pepper, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves were of first importance, their role being not so much to titillate the palate as to disguise the taste of spoiled meats in regions that had little ice.
27. In the 1480s King John II (of Portugal) undertook systematic new explorations focused on reaching India.
28. In the 1530s Francisco Pizarro subdued the Inca Empire in Peru, providing the Spaniards with still more treasure, drawn chiefly from the silver mine of Potosi.
29. A license to colonise Virginia was granted, and two joint-stock companies were organised, with one controlled by London merchants, the other by a group from the area around Plymouth and Bristol.
30. The only profits were those taken by certain shrewd investors, with them organizing a joint-stock company to transport women to Virginia “to be wives” by the colonists.
31. Many landless Englishmen were eager to migrate, it offered a decent opportunity to obtain land and make new lives for themselves.
32. Since they wanted to “purify” Anglicanism, those people encouraged ordinary worshipers to understand the Bible and the faith, with these critics called Puritans.
33. Lacking competent leaders and faced with appalling hardships, the Jamestown colonists failed to develop a sufficient sense of common purpose.
34. In 1837 Elijah Lovejoy, a Garrisonian newspaper editor in Alton, Illinois, first saw his press destroyed by fire and then was himself murdered by a mob.
35. While being a bondsman he had received a full portion of beatings and other indignities; but he had been allowed to learn to read and write and to master a trade, - opportunities denied the vast majority of slaves.
36. The separation from Europe made, some facts affected some settlers differently than others.
37. Given the existing race prejudice and the degrading impact of slavery, this demographic change had an enormous impact on life wherever blacks were concentrated.
38. time spent by a woman away from home or devoted to matters unrelated to the care of husband and family was, according to the new doctrine of “separate spheres”, time misappropriated.
39. The conservatives have always been the party of the Right, identified with the existing social order.
40. Most people reasoned that the work was easy and that it kept youngsters busy at usual tasks while providing their families with extra income.
41. At each level a man had to promise loyalty and service to his lord. This promise was made as a ceremony, with the lord sitting on his chair and his vassal kneeling before him, his hands placed between those of his lord.
42. One side at the House is occupied by the Government and the MPs who support it, the other, facing them, by Her Majesty’s Opposition.
43. At the 1981 census 19 per cent of the whole population claimed that they could speak Welsh, as compared with 29 per cent in 1951.
44. The Celtic bishops went out from their monasteries of Wales, Ireland and Scotland, walking from village to village teaching Christianity.
45. The density of the black population increasing, in each colony regulations governing the behaviour of blacks, both free and slave, increased in severity. The South Carolina Negro Act was established in 1740.
46. More well-to-do, “middling” planters had more comfortable life-styles, but they still lived in relatively crowded quarters, having perhaps three rooms to house a family and a couple of servants.
47. The law administered by these travelling judges became known as “common law”, because it was used everywhere.
48. Although they (the Angles) kept some animals, they spent more time growing crops. This meant that land was held by individual people, each man working on his own land.
49. Much of this newly cleared land quickly became exhausted, because the soil was too poor, being either too heavy or too light and sandy.
50. William the Conqueror’s coronation did not go as planned.
51. Viewed from the perspective, Russia was the rightful world center of Christianity, for heretical doctrines had corrupted the churches of Rome and Byzantium (the first and second Romes).
52. For money the Celts used iron bars, until they began to copy the Roman coins they saw used in Gaul (France).
53. Facing the Government front bench is the Opposition front bench, used by members of the shadow cabinet.
54. According to the code of chivalry, the perfect knight fought for his good name if insulted, served God and the King, and defended any lady in need.
55. The Church of Scotland is quite separate, having a different organization without bishops.
56. In the 1970s the countries of Britain prepared new long-term structure plans for their development, with them based on forecasts of population, industry and services.
57. Legislation which came into force in Northern Ireland in 1990 introduced reforms broadly in line with those being implemented in England and Wales under the Education Reform Act.
58. Later we find Shakespeare using this style in Prose dialogue.
59. This specimen appears to be very old, its surface being much corroded and bleached by exposure.
60. Their being neither a stream nor a river, he had to keep the vegetable beds moist and prevent them from being sunburnt.
61. The evidence, such as it is , seems to show that urban life, as understood by the Romans disappeared
62. Sets of ivory panels, which once adorned the king’s throne, illustrated the men of Iran bringing in their vassal tribute to the King of Assyria.
Упражнение 2. Прочтите отрывок из текста. Проанализируйте в нем все глагольные формы и определите, являются ли они сказуемым предложений, причастием (I или II) или герундием. Помните, что причастие I и герундий имеют одинаковые формы и частично совпадают по функциям в предложении (определение и обстоятельство). Однако в таких функциях герундию всегда предшествует предлог, а причастие предлога не имеет. Переведите отрывок, учитывая все особенности этих форм (вид, залог, а также время сказуемого) и их функции в предложениях.
Even in the relatively limited area that the first Spanish explorers visited, the native cultures displayed an extraordinary variety. If the people who greeted Columbus were relatively primitive, the civilizations of the Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Mexico were in many respects as highly developed as any of Europe and Asia. The Incas built roads as enduring as those of the Romans. Montezuma, the Aztec emperor lived in a great palace surrounded by courtiers and servants in a city as large as and far more impressive architecturally than Madrid, the home of Cortés’s master, King Charles V. north of Mexico no such imposing civilization existed, but the number of different patterns of life was enormous. Some groups were nomads who lived by hunting and fishing. Others lived settled lives based on hunting and agriculture. “Political organization among Indians varied from the simple family groups of the remote Arctic and desert West to the complex confederacies of tribes in the East,” Wilcomb Washburn writes in The Indian in America.
Hunting and fishing – which, again like many Europeans, the Indians regarded as sports as well as sources of food – were usually male occupations, as was warfare.
In agricultural communities, men and women shared other tasks; in general, the men did the heavy work of clearing land and building shelters; the women did planting, cultivating, and harvesting. When Indians observed European men planting seeds and weeding their fields, they scoffed at them for their being effeminate.
Most Europeans assumed the non-Europeans as being inferior. Apparently their prejudices were not always of racial origin. Some early colonists considered Indians as members of the white race, their skin having been darkened by exposure to the elements. The term red man did ot become current until the 18th century.
(from “A short History of the American Nation”, by John A.Garraty)
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