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Bologna process

The purpose of the Bologna processis to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna with the signing, in 1999, of the Bologna declaration by ministers of education from 29 European countries in the Italian city of Bologna.

The basic framework adopted is of three cycles of higher education qualification. As outlined in the Bergen Declaration of 2005, the cycles are defined in terms of qualifications and ECTS credits:

1st cycle: typically 180-240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a Bachelor's degree.

2nd cycle: typically 90-120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level), usually awarding a Master's degree.

3rd cycle: Doctoral degree. No ECTS range given.

In most cases, these will take 3, 2, and 3 years respectively to complete. The actual naming of the degrees may vary from country to country.

With the Bologna process implementation, higher education systems in European countries should be organized in such a way that:

- it is easy to move from one country to the other (within the European Higher Education Area) - for the purpose of further study or employment;

- the attractiveness of European higher education is increased so many people from non-European countries also come to study and/or work in Europe;

- the European Higher Education Area provides Europe with a broad, high quality and advanced knowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerant community benefiting from a cutting edge European Research Area;

- there will also be a greater convergence between the U.S. and Europe as European higher education adopts aspects of the American system.

2. Виконання після текстових вправ

Task l. Write a thesis plan of this text

Task 2. Answer the questions: 1.What is the Bologna process? 2. Name 3 cycles of the Bologna process. 3. What are their frameworks? 4. In what way the educational process will be organize?

3. Робота з граматичним матеріалом: Прикметник. Прислівник. Ступені порівняння.

Ex. 1.Complete these sentences using the correct form of the adjectives given in brackets. Write the number of the sentence and the correct form of the adjective.

1. What is the (large) city in your country? 2. What was the (happy) day in your life? 3. What is the (bad) habit that you have? 4. Who is the (good) student in your group? 5. What is the (expensive) thing that you have ever bought?

Ex. 2.Complete these sentences using the correct form of the adjectives given in brackets. Write the number of the sentence and the correct form of the adjective.

1. My brother is much ... than myself (young). 2. The opera theatre is one of ... buildings in the city (beautiful). 3. The sound grew ... and ... (faint). 4. The party was not so ... as Ihad expected (gay). 5. I have no one ... than you (near). 6. What is the ... news? (late) 7. Yesterday I came home ... than usual (late).

4. Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням:текст “ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN UKRAINE ”.

The protection of nature has become one of the most actual problems of the 20 century. The Earth provides people with mineral resources, rivers, forests, fields — everything that makes the foundation of industrial and agricultural production. The development of industry had a bad influence on the nature of the whole world. People often do the things which pollute lands and waters greatly. It is very dangerous because it hurts the health of the people and provokes different diseases. High rates of occupational diseases are documented mostly among the coal miners. Many heavy-metal and chemical-exposure-related incidents and ill­nesses have been reported in industrialized areas, mainly in Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia, Lugansk.

The intensive development of industry results in air pollution. High concentrations of pollutants in ambient air, including dust oxides of nitrogen are documented in considerably higher concentrations than in previous years. Metallurgical plants in a number of cities account for most of their total air pollutants. The appearance of supersonic jet airliners has presented many problems too. These airliners use up tons of oxygen and throw out over 150,000 tons of water vapour into stratosphere every day.

The living resources of the sea are also coming to an end. We have failed to protect our seas and lakes which are dying because of reducing their raw materials. It is very important to ensure pure air, oceans and seas by improving technological processes, the quality of raw materials and fuel, to do everything possible to protect people and nature from radioactive and air pollution. The only way to overcome a catastrophe is to put the air, oceans, great seas and lakes under greater international control, perhaps under that of the United Nations.

The accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused radioactive contamination of a vast area around the plant. We have to undertake drastic measures to neutralize the perilous effect of radiation on the environment. That's why environmental protection is a great concern of the Ukrainian Govern­ment. The Ministry of Environmental Protection was founded in Ukraine. Their tasks are to control the state of environment and sources of pollution, to protect the water resources of Ukraine, to extend the network of nature reserves and to maintain co-operation with international ecology organizations. Campaign for environmental protection is supported by public organizations and individuals. The Ukrainian Green Party is very active today. Zeleny Svit is the Ukrainian ecological newspaper. It calls on protection of the natural wealth and on using it in a more careful and economical manner for the benefit of the present and future generations.

Translate from Ukrainian into English:

1. Захистом навколишнього середовища піклується Український Уряд. 2. Необхідно захищати моря та озера, які помирають від забруднення. 3. Кампанії, які займаються захистом навколишнього середовища, підтримуються суспільними організаціями та деякими окремими людьми. 4. Українська екологічна газета «Зелений Світ» наголошує на необхідності захисту природного багатства нашої країни. 5. Єдиний засіб попередження катастрофи – це тримати повітря, океани та землю під постійним контролем. 6. В Україні було засноване Міністерство із Захисту Навколишнього Середовища. 7. Розвиток промисловості має поганий влив на природу всього світу.

Список літератури:

1. Барановська Т.В. Граматика англійської мови. Збірник вправ: Навч. посібник. Видання друге, виправлене та доповнене – Мова англ., укр. – Київ: ТОВ “ВП Логос-М», 2007. – 384с.

2. Л.В. Мисик, А.Л. Арцишевська, Л.Р. Кузнєцова, Л.Л. Поплавська. Англійська мова. Комунікативний аспект. / За ред. доц. Мисик Л.В. – Підручник. – К.: Атіка, 2000. – 368с.

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