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ST 5. It is interesting to know




 

I. Робота в парах. Прочитайте та перекладіть подані інтернаціональні слова.

astronomy [əs'tronəmi] materialism [mə'tiəriəlizm]
astrophysics [əstro'fiziks] matter ['mætə]
atomic [ə'tomik] modern ['modən]
base [beis] natural ['næt∫ərəl]
bionics [bai'oniks] pass [pa:s]
chemical ['kemik əl] physical ['fizikəl]
classical ['kl æsikəl] various ['vεəriəs]
cybernetics [saibə:'netiks] dialectical [daiə'lektikəl]
electrical [i'lektrikəl] spectroscopy [spek'trəskoupi]
electronics [ilek'troniks] theory [' θ iəri]
experiment [iks'perimənt] transform [trans'fo: m]
globe [gloub] method ['meθəd]
idea [ai'diə]  
isotope ['aisoutoup]  
lead (led, led) [li:d, led]  
magnetic [mæg'netic]  
physics ['fiziks]  
problem ['probləm]  
quantum ['kwontəm]  
radio ['reidiou]  
radium ['raidjəm]  

II. Прочитайте подані слова та запам’ятайте їх значення.

 

application [æ pli'kei∫n] застосування
apply [ə 'plai] застосовувати
branch [bra: nt∫] галузь
carry out ['kæri aut] проводити
case ['keis] випадок
change [t ∫eind3] зміна
connect [kə 'nekt] об’єднуватись, зв’язуватись
connection [kə'nek∫ən] зв’язок, з’єднання
copper ['kopə] мідь
current ['kλrənt] потік
develop [di'veləp] розвивати, створювати
development [di'veləpmənt] розвиток, розробка, створення
due to [dju: tu] завдяки
engineering [end3i'niəriŋ] техніка, технічний
field [fi:ld] поле, галузь
force [fo:s] сила, змушувати
found [faund] засновувати
heat [hi:t] теплота
importance [im'po:təns] важливість, значення
important [im'po:tənt] важливий
include [ink'lu:d] включати
influence ['influəns] вплив, впливати
investigate [in'vestigeit] досліджувати
investigation [investi'gei∫ən] дослідження
knowledge ['nolid3] знання
light [lait] світло
lightning ['laitniŋ] блискавка
merge [mə:d3] об’єднуватись, зливатись
nuclear ['nju:kliə] ядерний
observe [əb'zə:v] спостерігати
occur [ə'kə:] відбуватися
power ['pauə] потужність, енергія
release [ri'li:s] звільняти
research [ri'sə:t∫] дослідження, досліджувати
same [seim] той самий, однаковий

 



science ['saiəns] наука
scientific [saiən'tifik] науковий
scientist ['saiəntist] науковець
solution [sə'lu: ∫ən] вирішення, розв'язання
solve [solv] вирішувати
sound [saund] звук
such [sλt∫] такий
use [ju:s] використання, вживання
variety [və'raiəti] різноманітність
various ['veəriəs] різноманітний, відмінний
vary ['veəri] змінюватись
wire ['waiə] дріт

III. Запам’ятайте фрази і словосполучення.

a vast number of the boiling of water the falling of a stone the heating of a wire the melting of ice there exists to take place upon carefully observing багато кипіння води падіння каменя нагрівання дроту танення льоду існує відбуватись уважно спостерігаючи

 

 

IV. Прочитайте та перекладіть базовий текст №1 (ВТ1).



 

PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA

 

1. Physics is a broad science about nature.

2. In nature there exists a vast number of different objects.

3. Any object (a ruler, a pencil, sand, scissors, a drop of water, a stone, the globe, etc.) is called a physical body or a body.

4. All bodies consist of matter.

5. Steel, copper, rubber, water, air, a stone are different kinds of matter.

6. Upon carefully observing different physical bodies, we notice, without any particular difficulty, that various changes take place in these bodies.

7. All changes which occur in a physical body are known as phenomena.

8. If a piece of ice is brought into a warm room, it melts.

9. Water in a tea-kettle boils for a long time, all of it will be transformed into steam.

10. A stone released from the hand falls to the earth.

11. If we pass an electric current through the wire, the wire will become heated.

12. The melting of ice, the boiling of water, the falling of a stone, the heating of a wire by an electric current, wind, lightning – all these are different phenomena.

13. Physics studies mechanics, sound, heat, electricity and magnetism, light and spectroscopy, atomic and nuclear physics and astrophysics.

14. In addition to these fields of physics, another fields are rapidly developing.

15. These different fields are not distinct but merge into each other.

16. In all cases physics deals primarily with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy.

 

V. Знайдіть в базовому тексті відповіді на наступні запитання.

 

1. What is physics?

2. What does physics study?

3. What is called a physical phenomenon?

4. What does any body consist of?

5. When will the wire become heated?

6. When does a piece of ice melt?

 

VI. Прочитайте та перекладіть додатковий текст №1(SТ1).

 

PHYSICS

 

Nowadays physics is the leading natural science and this is due to the variety of the ideas and methods and due to the importance of the results of investigation for the theory of knowledge and for the development of the world outlook.

No less important is the influence of physics on the development of the productive forces of society. Many fields of modern engineering such as nuclear engineering, electronics, including semiconductor and quantum electronics, atomic power and radio engineering are closely connected with physics. At the same time the application of new physical ideas and research methods to classical branches of science and engineering has led in many cases to new solutions of certain problems.

New sciences, that are based on physics, have been founded and are being developed; they are: cybernetics, radioastronomy, bionics, biophysics and others.

 

VII. Знайдіть в тексті еквіваленти наступних слів і виразів:

Провідна природнича наука, різноманіття методів, не менш важливо, ядерна техніка, напівпровідникова та квантова електроніка, атомна енергетика, радіотехніка, галузі науки, кібернетика, радіоастрономія, біофізика.

 

VIII. Знайдіть в додатковому тексті№1(SТ1) відповіді на наступні запитання.

 

1. Why is physics a leading natural science?

2. What fields of modern engineering are closely connected with physics?

3. What new sciences based on physics are being developed?

 

IX.Прочитайте та перекладіть додатковий текст №2(SТ2).

PHYSICS. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

 

Physics is the science of matter, motion and energy. Newton was the first physicist in the modern sense. Since he stated the three laws of motion in 1687 physics has advanced at a rapid pace along a road which may be divided into three stages. The first consists in acquiring quantitative knowledge about some particular phenomena. The next stage involves theoretical study, including mathematical proofs of theories, and the last stage, experimental proof of the important theories. Until quite recently physicists were in favour of mechanical explanation. The physicist today deals with mathematics to a large extent. The theory of relativity of Einstein, by which the universe is explained mathematically, is a powerful tool of physics. Electricity and magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation of all kinds, from wireless waves to X-rays, were based on Maxwell’s theory, which resolves the world into electric charges and electric and magnetic waves.

Physics originally developed, and is still taught today, along several different lines: mechanics, heat, light, electricity and magnetism, and sound. When light was shown to have the characteristics of a wave motion, heat to be convertible into mechanical work, and electricity and magnetism to be capable of generation by mechanical means, it is a proof of the unity of nature.

 

X . Знайдіть в додатковому текст №2(SТ2) відповіді на наступні запитання.

1. What is physics?

2. Who was the first physicist in the modern sense?

3. When did Newton state the three laws of motion?

4. What does the first stage consist in?

5. What does the next stage involve?

6. What branches of physics were based on Maxwell’s theory?

7. What is the proof of the unity of nature?

 

X1. Анотуйте додатковий текст №2 (ST2) англійською та українською мовами.

 

XII. Прочитайте та перекладіть додатковий текст №3(SТ3).

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

Chemistry and physics are interrelated sciences – the main difference being that chemistry deals with changes in the composition of matter, while physics is concerned with changes in the location or size of matter.

Chemistry is of universal significance, since the structure of the universe is essentially chemical; there is nothing in nature which is not involved in chemical change.

Matter and energy among the phenomena of the physical universe have actual and objective existence. In the study of matter and energy chemistry may be regarded as the science of matter, precisely as physics may be regarded as the science of energy. Chemistry deals mainly with the alteration in properties which the different kinds of matter undergo when they act on one another. Physics, on the other hand, has to do chiefly with the laws according to which the transformations of energy are brought about.

Chemistry and physics are closely interrelated sciences. No change in matter can possibly be effected without some simultaneous form of energy change. Consequently, every chemical change necessarily involves physical changes as well. The converse, however, is not always true, energy changes may take place without the apparent production of any corresponding matter change. For example, when hydrogen unites with oxygen, the matter produced is water and the energy product is heat. When water freezes, it appears to be a physical change in which the water changes only from the liquid to the solid state.

 

Contrasting examples:

 

Chemistry – chemical changes Physics – physical changes
  Burning of wood   Wood is composed of particles of cellulose cemented together by lignin. When wood is ignited, substances whose properties are different from those of the wood are produced, including water, carbon dioxide (colourless gas), methane (colourless gas), and carbonates.   Rusting of iron When iron is exposed to oxygen in the presence of moisture, the iron is transformed into a new substance with new properties, commonly known as “rust” and chemically known as “ferric” oxide.   Electrolysis of water Water is a very stable substance. However, it can be decomposed by means of an electric current, the process being known as electrolysis. In the electrolysis of water, a small amount of sulfuric acid is usually added to give the water conductivity. The electric current separates the two invisible gases that make up water (the oxygen may be collected at the positive electrode and hydrogen at the negative electrode).   Other examples of chemical changes   The burning of a cigarette The digestion of food The healing of wounds       Dropping and chopping of wood If a block of wood is pushed off a table, it undergoes no change in composition, but merely a change of location. If a piece of wood is chopped into small shavings, the wood undergoes no change in composition, but merely a change into component parts of smaller size.     Cutting of iron If a piece of iron is cut into two or more parts, its properties are not lost.   Distillation of water In distillation, water is changed into steam which is still water in the vapour state. The vapour is easily condencible to water, by cooling.   Freezing of water   Ice is still water, since it returns to water by a physical method (heat). When water is changed to the solid state (ice) it shows an increase in volume, because water expands while it freezes. This accounts for the bursting of water pipes when they freeze.   Other examples of physical changes The tearing of paper The cutting of hair The breaking of glass

 

Chemistry, therefore, is the science that deals with chemical changes – that is, changes in the composition of matter, accompanied by energy changes.

Physics is the study of physical changes – that is, changes in the position, location, or size of matter, without any alterations in its composition.

 

XIII. Знайдіть у додатковому тексті №3 (ST3) та випишіть нову спеціальну лексику уроку.

XIV. Анотуйте додатковий текст №3 (ST3) англійською та українською мовами.

XV. Прочитайте та перекладіть додатковий текст №4 (SТ4).

 

UKRAINIAN PHYSICISTS

 

In the field of physical sciences Ukrainian scientists contributed much into development of world science. Many of them are known to the public at large, but greater part remains unknown.

Ivan Puliuy (1845-1918)was a noted Ukrainian scientist. He began his road to science on foot from his native village of Hrymailiv in Ternopil area to Vienna where he studied theology. He wrote in Ukrainian the first textbook on Geometry and the book about stars and planets. His activities prevented him from becoming a lecturer of Kiev University. He worked in Vienna in the field of electrical engineering, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy. Besides, Ivan Puliuy was a brilliant polyglot, he knew 15 languages. He was the first to discover invisible rays some decades earlier than Wilhelm Roentgen. He was the first to study the so-called “cold light”. His lamps were much better than Edison’s ones. Ivan Puliuy offered an isolation transformer for telephone exchanges and put into operation a number of power stations with constant current.

Ihor Sikorsky (b.1889)was born in Kiev. He designed the first multi-engine plane. In 1919 he emigrated to the USA. In 1939 he designed the first helicopter.

Ostap Stasiv (1903-1985)was born in the village of Borshchevychi near Lviv. He graduated from Berlin University where he attended lectures of Max Plank and Albert Einstein. He founded in Berlin the Institute of Crystal Physics.

Olexandr Smakula (1900-1983)was born in the village of Dobrovody in Ternopil area. He worked in Germany and USA and made dozens of inventions. His quantity mathematical correlation is known in physics as Smakula’s formula.

Heorhii Sharpak (b.1924)comes from Rivne Region. Since 1954 he has been working in Geneva where he discovered a new type of nuclear particles detector – a multiwire chamber of Sharpak. He was awarded the Noble Prize in physics.

Heorhii Gamov (1904- 1968)was born in Odessa. In 1928 he used quantum mechanics and explained alpha decay. He developed the cosmological theory of “Primary explosion”. He is a member of the National academy of Sciences (USA).

Borys Hrabovskyi (1901-1966).He was the son of outstanding Ukrainian poet Pavlo Hrabovskyi. Boris Hrabovskyi is one of the founders of the modern television. Together with his assistant I.Bilianskyi he designed the first in the world TV set. On July 26, 1928, the image of his assistant appeared on the screen of the TV set.

Leonid Vereshchagin (1909-1977)was born in Kherson. The first synthetic diamonds were obtained under his leadership.

Petro Kapitsa (1894-1984)was born in the family of Colonel Leonid Kapitsa. His mother, Olga, was a daughter of Ieronim Stebnytskyi. He was a Ukrainian who made a great contribution into development of physics working in England and Russia. He was awarded the Noble Prize. The whole world knows Petro Kapitsa as a noted scientist in he field of nuclear physics.

The Kiev school of Physics includes some known names of the Ukrainian physicists.

Olexandr Davydovwas born in Yevpatoria in 1912. His discoveries of compound molecules were named after O. Davydov.

Vadym Lashkaryov (1903-1974)was born in Kiev. His fundamental researches were in the field of semiconductors.

Oleksa Bilaniuk (b. 1926)was born in Sianok of Lemky area. In 1962 he proved that there were particles which moved quicker than light. The particles were called tahions. Oleksa Bilaniuk replenished the theory of Einstain.He addressed Ukrainian scientists to improve their knowledge of English as a universal language of scientific communication.

 

XV. Знайдіть у додатковому тексті № 4 (ST4) відповіді на наступні запитання.

 

1. What did the O. Bilaniuk address to the Ukrainian physicists?

2. What is the chamber of Sharpak?

3. What is Smakula’s formula?

4. What do you know about the son of outstanding poet Pavlo Hrabovskyi?

5. Who of the Ukrainian physicists were awarded the Noble prize?

6. What do you know about Ivan Puliuy?

7. Who invented television?

8. What are tahions?

9. Who discovered X-rays some decades earlier than Wilhelm Roenthen?

 

XVI. Підготуйте повідомлення про одного з відомих українських фізиків.

XVII.Прочитайте та перекладіть додатковий текст №5(SТ 5).

IT IS INTERESTING TO KNOW

 

Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer, was known for the invention of dynamite. Everything that he invented served military purposes. He understood how terrible his inventions were, but he easily forgot about them saying:”The things which we develop are terrible indeed, but they are so interesting and so perfect technically that it makes them more attractive. ”

But one morning, while looking through a French newspaper, Nobel read about … his own death. The paper described his inventions as “terrible means of destruction” and he was named “a dynamite king” and “a merchant of death”. The thought that his name would always be connected with dynamite and death shook Nobel. He felt he could never be happy again. He decided to use all his money (about 2,000,000 pounds) for some noble purpose.

According to his will, prizes for “the most outstanding achievements” in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and struggle for peace are awarded every year. Nobel prizes have become the highest international scientific awards. Perhaps it’s the irony of life that some of Nobel prize winners helped to make the atom bomb.

 

XVIII..Анотуйте додаткові тексти №4,5(ST 4,5) англійською та українською мовами.


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