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Тексты для чтения для студентов специальности 260501
The term menu refers to the written or printed list of different dishes from which a restaurant customer makes a selection . Planning the menu is important from two points of view : the owner’s profit and the customer’s pleasure.
Anyone who plans menu should have some basic knowledge of nutrition and the properties of food.
Foods are usually classified into five basic groups according to their nutritional values . The menu planner should have some knowledge of these groups.
Proteins are found in foods of both animal and plant origin. Meat , eggs, milk, fish, nuts and certain cereals are rich in proteins.
Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon , hydrogen and oxygen that provide body with heat and energy. Grains have a high carbohydrate content, and so do potatoes and sugar.
Fats are oily substances that are another source of heat and energy. Vegetable oils are a liquid source of fat ; other foods rich in fats are dairy products such as milk, butter and cheese.
Minerals and vitamins are required in small amount to regulate the functions of parts of the body such as nerves and glands. They are necessary for health and normal growth.
In addition to knowledge of these nutrients , the menu planner should be aware of calories. A calorie is a unit of heat that is used to indicate the energy value of food.
Today when most people are conscious of the relation between beauty, health and weight many count their calories carefully.
The menu planner should be careful to provide a number of low-calories dishes.
METHODS OF COOKING
Cooking is a heat treatment of food to make it edible. Many products cannot be eaten raw. Meat, fish and vegetables are usually cooked. Some fruits are not cooked, but some, such as apples, pears, and currants, may be used in pies or to make desserts. Fruits are also cooked to make jams, jellies, and marmalades.
The four basic ways to cook food are:
• heating in a liquid (boiling, stewing)
• heating in fat or oil (frying and sautéing)
• heating in steam (steaming)
• heating by dry heat (baking, roasting and grilling).
Boiling.We may boil food in different liquids and mixtures, including water, stock, and wine. Meat, poultry, many vegetables and spaghetti are cooked in this way.
Stewingis cooking food slowly in liquid. It is often used for meat. Vegetables, herbs, and spices are usually added at the end of cooking.
Deep-fryingis immersion of food in hot fat or oil. Chipped potatoes and doughnuts are the best example of deep-frying. Deep-fried foods are called fritters.
Shallow fryingis frying on a pan in hot fat or oil, when the food is fried on both sides. We can fry eggs, meat, vegetables, mushrooms, onions and pancakes.
Sautéingis frying when natural juices of the food are mixed with the fat or oil in the saucepan. We can also add stock, wine or cream. As a result we obtain a dish with a sauce.
Steamingis a method of cooking above the surface of boiling liquid in a covered saucepan. Fish, vegetables, and poultry are especially suitable for steaming.
Baking is dry cooking inside an oven. Bread, cakes, pastries, tarts and biscuits are baked. Vegetables, especially potatoes, may also be cooked in this way.
Roastingis cooking meat and poultry, which are placed in an oven and cooked by dry heat. They are often basted, that is, the juices from the meat are spooned over during the process. Some cooks wrap the meat in a roasting foil with a little oil or melted fat. Meat can be also roasted on a spit.
Grillingis a rapid method of cooking poultry, fish, cuts of meat, sausages and kebabs by heat, the source of which may be gas, electricity, or charcoal.
Words to be learned:
Stock– крепкий бульон(на костях).
Deep-frying –обжаривание спогружением в кипящее масло.
Fritters –блюда, жареные во фритюре (с погружением в масло).
On a spit –на вертеле.
To baste – поливать сверху жиром.