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1. One of the first contributors to mining and geology was a great scientist M.V. Lomonosov who connected the study of minerals and rocks with chemistry and physics, discovered and formulated the laws of mining ventilation and mining geometry.
2. Academician A.Y. Fersman ranks among those leading mineralogists who converted mineralogy from a purely descriptive science into a science based on the most fundamental chemical investigations. A.Y. Fersman worked out the basic lines of the study of chemical elements and laid the foundation for the scientific surveying and prospecting for useful minerals. A number of scientific expeditions to different parts of the country and were organized by him.
3. Professor B.I. Boky's name is associated with the solution of a number of significant technical problems in the mining industry of the country and with the whole trend in the development of the science of mining - the analytical method of designing new collieries.
4. Credit for working out the theoretical principles of the exploration of deposits is due to Prof. M.M. Protodyakonov. His most remarkable works are those concerning the problems of underground pressure and mine timbering. Prof. M.M. Protodyakonov founded a school for the study of rock pressure and its influence on mine timbering.
5. A.A. Skochinsky's deep interest in theoretical problems was always combined with wide engineering experience. He discovered the laws of the movement and control of the movement of air and gases underground. His works are devoted to localization, liquidation and prevention of underground fires.
6. Academician N.V. Melnikov is well known for his research in the field of open-cast mining not only of coal but also of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and other minerals. He was engaged in the study of fuel energy resources and their utilization.
7. Prof. I.M. Gubkin has made a great contribution to the development of the science of geology. His work embraced different fields of geology. He studied geological formations and took an interest in the oil deposits of the country. He was the author of a hundred and fifty scientific works.
II. Знайдіть відповіді на запитання.
1. Who discovered and formulated the laws of mining ventilation and mining geometry?
2. What method did B.I. Boky introduce into mining?
3. What problems did N.V. Melnikov pay special attention to?
4. How many scientific works did Gubkin write?
5. Who laid the foundation for the scientific surveying and prospecting for useful minerals?